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Nina Raoult, Catherine Ottlé, Philippe Peylin, Vladislav Bastrikov, and Pascal Maugis

(European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative Soil Moisture) combined product ( Dorigo et al. 2017 ). Soil moisture observations and retrievals can be used not only to evaluate the different processes in the model but also to calibrate the associated parameters, using for example data assimilation (DA) techniques. DA refers to the act of combining models and observations, while using the available knowledge about their respective uncertainties ( Tarantola 2005 ). This can be used to improve the

Open access
Joel R. Norris, F. Martin Ralph, Reuben Demirdjian, Forest Cannon, Byron Blomquist, Christopher W. Fairall, J. Ryan Spackman, Simone Tanelli, and Duane E. Waliser

layer wind obtained from the Global Forecast System to fill time and space gaps between satellite swaths ( Wimmers and Velden 2011 ). Morphed Integrated Microwave Imagery was used only to characterize the synoptic overview and not for water budget calculations. The Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, version 2 (MERRA-2) ( Gelaro et al. 2017 ), provided information on the large-scale synoptic environment in which the atmospheric river occurred. The MERRA-2 reanalysis

Open access
Ryan Gonzalez and Christian D. Kummerow

constrained by the amount of initial snowfall at the gauge site. Parameter-Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) is considered to be a high-quality precipitation dataset in the mountains for the contiguous United States ( Daly et al. 1994 ). PRISM uses a climate-elevation regression technique to distribute climatological precipitation data observed mostly by National Weather Service Cooperative Observer Program (COOP) precipitation gauges. Lundquist et al. (2015) showed the PRISM

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Yafang Zhong, Jason A. Otkin, Martha C. Anderson, and Christopher Hain

ALEXI ET estimates compare well with ground-based data ( Anderson et al. 1997 , 2012 ; Li et al. 2008 ). The USCRN soil observations have a national coverage and consistent measurement techniques across the United States, with measurements made at multiple soil depths from 5 to 100 cm ( Bell et al. 2013 ). It is worth mentioning that this is not a mechanism study of soil moisture–ET coupling, which may require in situ ET observations such as from the FLUXNET towers ( Baldocchi et al. 2001 ). This

Free access
Rebecca Gugerli, Marco Gabella, Matthias Huss, and Nadine Salzmann

radars improves the coarse distribution of rain gauge estimates while the higher absolute accuracy of rain gauges improves the overall precipitation estimates. Rain gauge adjustment of radar-derived estimates was already attempted in the 1970s and 1980s (e.g., Cain and Smith 1976 ; Koistinen and Puhakka 1981 ; Collier et al. 1983 ; Collier 1986 ). Several refined gauge-adjustment techniques have since confirmed the improvement of the combination of radar and rain gauge networks ( Koistinen et al

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Hanqing Chen, Bin Yong, Weiqing Qi, Hao Wu, Liliang Ren, and Yang Hong

1. Introduction Accurate estimation of precipitation is essential for climate analysis, hydrological simulation, drought monitoring, flood forecasting, landslide warning, and related emergency management ( Kidd and Levizzani 2011 ; Maggioni et al. 2016 ). At present, high-quality precipitation estimation mainly depends on rain gauge networks and ground-based radars although satellite technology and satellite-based retrievals have made great progress in recent years. The widely used satellite

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Weiwei Lu, Huimin Lei, Wencong Yang, Jingjing Yang, and Dawen Yang

.” Subsequently, the objective synoptic analysis technique (OSAT) method, proposed by Ren et al. (2006) was applied to separate the gridded precipitation time series into TC rainfall and non-TC rainfall ( section 2 ). Because of its convenience and high accuracy, this method has been widely used in China to distinguish TC precipitation ( Wang et al. 2008 ; Chang et al. 2012 ; Yang et al. 2018 ; Wang et al. 2019 ). Finally, according to the ratio of TC rainfall to total rainfall from the beginning of the

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Nicola Montaldo, Matteo Curreli, Roberto Corona, Andrea Saba, and John D. Albertson

to a lesser extent. Peak discharge is the key hydrograph characteristic, commonly used in designs for flood protection and hydrologic forecasting (e.g., Bennett and Mays 1985 ; Ponce 1989 ; Montaldo et al. 2004 ; Mediero et al. 2010 ). Although we were not investigating hydrologic processes at basin scale, our results showed that at plot scale the peak flow was significantly affected by grass growth, and this factor may potentially impact the flood hydrograph, especially for small basins with

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Hanh Nguyen, Jason A. Otkin, Matthew C. Wheeler, Pandora Hope, Blair Trewin, and Christa Pudmenzky

the ET fraction, and r E T ¯ and σ ( r ET ) are its climatological mean and standard deviation, respectively, for that time of the year computed over the period 1975–2018. Note that 2019 was not included in the climatological mean because at the time of computation the year was not complete. Therefore, we fixed the climatology to 1975–2018. Further details on the AWRA-L land surface model and the ESI computational technique can be found in Nguyen et al. (2019) . Areas that lack enough in situ

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Liang Chen, Trent W. Ford, and Priyanka Yadav

fully coupled atmosphere and land components in accordance with the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) protocol. Considering the model uncertainties, the second experiment is a Control simulation with atmospheric nudging to effectively drive the model states toward observations ( Wehrli et al. 2019 ). Following the approach in reference ( Wehrli et al. 2019 , 2018 ), we relax the horizontal winds toward the 6-hourly European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Reanalysis

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