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Junjun Liu and Tapio Schneider

1. Introduction Jupiter’s and Saturn’s tropospheres exhibit alternating prograde and retrograde jets, with a strong prograde jet at the equator (superrotation) and generally weaker jets in the off-equatorial region. Although Jupiter and Saturn have similar radii, rotation rates, and atmospheric compositions, their jets differ markedly. Both Jupiter and Saturn have strong prograde jets at the equator, with Saturn’s equatorial jet being stronger and wider than Jupiter’s. But Jupiter has 15–20 off

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Junhong Wei and Fuqing Zhang

for exchanges between the troposphere and stratosphere ( Holton et al. 1995 ). Generally speaking, gravity waves can be generated and activated by topographic forcing, density impulses, convection, shear instability, and geostrophic adjustment related to jets, fronts, and/or sources of strong diabatic heating ( Hooke 1986 ; Fritts and Alexander 2003 ; Kim et al. 2003 ). A better knowledge of these processes demands a complete understanding of the mechanisms by which the gravity waves are

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K. Haines, P. Malanotte-Rizzoli, and M. Morgan

I JANUARY 1993 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE 145NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCEPersistent Jet Stream Intensifications: A Comparison between Theory and Data K. HAINES,* P. MALANOTTE-RIZZOLI, AND M. MORGANCenter for Meteorology and Physical Oceanography, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts8 November 1991 and 3 April 1992 ABSTRACT A diagnostic study of

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Frank B. Lipps

120 JOI'RNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VoLume20Stability,of Jets in a Divergent Baretropic FluidFRANK The University of Chicago(Manuscript received 10 September 1962, in revised form 18 December 1962)ABSTRACT The stability of a two-layer incompressible fluid system on a rotating earth is investigated. The upperlayer has infinite depth and is inert; the lower layer has finite depth and a basic west

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Jerome Namias and Philip F. Clapp

330 JOURNAL OF METEOROLOGY VOLUME 6CONFLUENCE THEORY OF THE HIGH TROPOSPHERIC JET STREAM By Jerome Namias and Philip F. Clapp U. S. Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C. (Manuscript received 31 January 1949)ABSTRACTIn 1947 a suggestion was made by one of the authors that the existence of fast narrow currents in theupper troposphere was due to the bringing together, or confluence, of warm and cold air masses from northerlyand southerly regions. In the

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W. J. Gibbs

AUGUST 1952 Li-. J. GIBBS279NOTES ON THE MEAN JET-STREAM OVER AUSTRALIA By W. J. Gibbs Fellow, Commonwealth Fund of New York(Original manuscript received 25 March 1952; revised manuscript received 11 April 1952)ABSTRACTFurther data on the distribution of the mean geostrophic west-wind over Australia are presented. Profilesof the 200-mb geostrophic west-wind for the southern and northern hemispheres are compared. The deduction is made that, for the respective seasons

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M. D. Greenslade and P. H. Haynes

associated with a jet that has a character intermediate between a subtropical jet bounding the tropical Hadley cell region and a midlatitude eddy-driven jet. See, for example, Lee and Kim (2003) for discussion of relevant dynamics. The height of the transition between lower and upper regimes was interpreted as the height of the extratropical tropopause, and the upper-level transport barrier was interpreted as the analog of the subtropical tropopause (sometimes misleadingly called the “tropopause break

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David D. Houghton

518 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES Vo~.u~m22A QuasioLagrangian Study of the Barotropic Jet Stream1 DAVID D. HOUGHTONNational Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo.(Manuscript received 19 April 1965, in revised form 8 July 1965) A quasi-Lagrangi~m formulation for an inviscid barotropic fluid is presented and shown to afford a convenient basis for analysis of certMn ageo

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David J. Raymond

2274 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VO~-UME35Instability of the Low-Level Jet and Severe Storm Formation DAVID J. RAYMONDNew Mexico Institute of Mining amt Technology, So,otto 87801(Manuscript received 4 August 1977, in final form 28 August 1978)ABSTRACT It is shown that the low-level southerly jet of the continental United States is susceptible to a dynamicinstability similar to symmetric

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Seok-Woo Son, Mingfang Ting, and Lorenzo M. Polvani

1. Introduction Two distinct storm tracks are observed in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) winter: one over the Pacific and the other over the Atlantic Ocean sector. They are located downstream of the jets where the baroclinicity reaches a maximum ( Blackmon 1976 ; Frederiksen 1983 ), suggesting that storm tracks are primarily organized by baroclinic eddy activity. The relationship between local baroclinicity and storm-track intensity, however, is not well understood. For example, the Pacific

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