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Claire Steinweg and William J. Gutowski Jr.

, and the potentially increasing costs in the future require an understanding of how heat-stress events may change. Here we use projected climate changes from simulations for the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP; Mearns et al. 2012 , 2013 ) to assess potential changes in heat stress in the mid-twenty-first century for the greater St. Louis area in Missouri. NARCCAP is a multimodel project with a major motivation of providing regionally resolved projections for

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Victoria Reyes-García, Álvaro Fernández-Llamazares, Maximilien Guèze, and Sandrine Gallois

despite being unaware of the scientific explanations for the events, had made the connection between shifts in Pleiades brightness in June and rain fluctuations. Ethnoclimatology has grown during the last two decades with many works detailing how local observations of the environment, such as animals’ behavior, changes in plants’ morphology and physiology, patterns in clouds’ and winds’ formation and properties, or other climatic and biological phenomena, are used to forecast immediate and future

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Kelly Helm Smith, Mark E. Burbach, Michael J. Hayes, Patrick E. Guinan, Andrew J. Tyre, Brian Fuchs, Tonya Haigh, and Mark D. Svoboda

livestock producers’ experience with drought. In 2018, the NDMC implemented newer, easier-to-use technology to collect observations and saw a jump in the magnitude of event-driven reporting in Missouri, where several trends converged to produce a bumper crop of reports, in contrast to previous experience, as described below. This article examines the interests, circumstances, history, and recruitment messaging that coincided to produce a high number of reports in a short time; whether and how

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Rachael N. Cross and Daphne S. LaDue

EMs). EMs often sought information (e.g., examining radar or using personal networks to get reports of weather conditions) to make up for the lack of detail ( Hoss and Fischbeck 2016 ). Kox et al. (2018) , interested in promoting the use of severe and hydrologic forecast information, found that German EMs and civil protection authorities already compared and contrasted severe weather forecast information from different sources to gauge uncertainty and be prepared to act. Uncertainty information

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Tyler A. Beeton and Shannon M. McNeeley

. Travis (2010) reviewed the natural hazards and disasters literature and identified six response types that reduce exposure to extremes and vulnerability. These included technological control and intervention; physical protection and barriers; monitoring, forecasting, and early warning systems; building codes and engineering design standards; relief and insurance mechanisms; and land-use changes. Wilhite et al. (2000) and others at the National Drought Mitigation Center applied the cycle of

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Nathan Beech and Micah J. Hewer

. , and N. J. Cherry , 1988 : Prediction of a district’s grape-ripening capacity using a latitude–temperature index (LTI) . Amer. J. Enol. Vitic. , 39 , 19 – 28 . Jia , G. , and Coauthors , 2019 : Land–climate interactions. Climate Change and Land: An IPCC Special Report on Climate Change, Desertification, Land Degradation, Sustainable Land Management, Food Security, and Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in Terrestrial Ecosystems , P. R. Shukla et al., Eds., Cambridge University Press, 131

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Cara L. Cuite, Rachael L. Shwom, William K. Hallman, Rebecca E. Morss, and Julie L. Demuth

streets to be evacuated. Fig . 1. Examples of four evacuation messages from different New Jersey Shore towns preceding the 23 Jan 2016 coastal storm. The variation in these evacuation notices leads directly to our research questions, which investigate the effectiveness of different evacuation messages with the goal of encouraging the highest possible levels of evacuation from high-risk areas while maintaining relatively low evacuation rates in lower-risk areas. Using data from an online survey in

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Emma Ferranti, Lee Chapman, Caroline Lowe, Steve McCulloch, David Jaroszweski, and Andrew Quinn

infrastructure. Given that high temperatures and heat waves such as those experienced in Europe in 2003 are predicted to become increasingly common ( Coumou and Robinson 2013 ), understanding the nature of these heat-related incidents is of clear importance for Network Rail and for the four million passengers who use the railway network on a daily basis ( Network Rail 2016 ). Heat affects different asset types in different ways. For example, temperatures above 30°C are often associated with track

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Kieran M. Findlater, Milind Kandlikar, Terre Satterfield, and Simon D. Donner

1. Introduction The conceptual literature on climate change adaptation has long asserted that climate change creates new challenges for farm-level decision-making ( Meinke and Stone 2005 ; Meinke et al. 2009 ; Risbey et al. 1999 ), yet many adaptation studies continue to use weather and climate variability as unqualified proxies for climate change, either explicitly or implicitly, in studying farmers’ responses. This approach implies that farmers will adapt to climate change risks using the

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Peter H. Gleick

://www.worldwater.org/conflict.html ). Water-related conflicts occur in many forms, including disputes over access to water and the control of water systems, the targeting of water infrastructure and systems during conventional conflicts and terrorist actions, and the use of water as a weapon. In recent years, there has been an increase in violence over the role that water plays in development disputes and economic activities. Conflicts of any kind are rarely, if ever, attributable to single causes. As such, any analysis or efforts at

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