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Emmanuel Nyadzi, E. Saskia Werners, Robbert Biesbroek, Phi Hoang Long, Wietse Franssen, and Fulco Ludwig

, as farmers have to make several climate-sensitive decisions months in advance of the rice farming season ( Asante and Amuakwa-Mensah 2015 ). A similar challenge exists in irrigated rice farming. The difficulty of predicting rainfall and consequently river discharge affects the decisions of water managers about water distribution to the irrigated farmlands. The use of weather and climate forecasts could be an instrument that helps farmers in their decision-making to improve agricultural

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Elizabeth C. McNie

, 423 pp. Shaw, C. G., III , and Coauthors , 1997 : Conservation and resource assessments for the Tongass Land Management Plan Revision: Evaluation of the use of scientific information in developing the 1997 Forest Plan for the Tongass National Forest. U.S. Forest Service, 9 pp . Stokes, D. E. , 1997 : Pasteur’s Quadrant: Basic Science and Technological Innovation. Brookings Institution, 196 pp . Stone, D. , Maxwell S. , and M. Keating, 2001 : Bridging research and policy. 50 pp

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Mohd Zeeshan, Huanyuan Zhang, Liqing Sha, Gnanamoorthy Palingamoorthy, Zayar Phyo, Ziwei Chen, Goldin Quadros, and P. A. Azeez

Gulmarg by Dar et al. (2014) . Studies in the western Himalayas attribute deforestation ( Yadav et al. 2004 ) and vehicular pollution ( Gajananda et al. 2005 ) jointly with regional and global changes to rising temperatures due to black carbon ( Ramanathan and Carmichael 2008 ). Some of the global-level studies that reported an increase in temperature relate it with an increase in the cloud cover in mountain regions ( Karl and Knight 1998 ; Quintana-Gomez 1999 ) as well as land-use change and

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R. H. Moss, S. Avery, K. Baja, M. Burkett, A. M. Chischilly, J. Dell, P. A. Fleming, K. Geil, K. Jacobs, A. Jones, K. Knowlton, J. Koh, M. C. Lemos, J. Melillo, R. Pandya, T. C. Richmond, L. Scarlett, J. Snyder, M. Stults, A. M. Waple, J. Whitehead, D. Zarrilli, B. M. Ayyub, J. Fox, A. Ganguly, L. Joppa, S. Julius, P. Kirshen, R. Kreutter, A. McGovern, R. Meyer, J. Neumann, W. Solecki, J. Smith, P. Tissot, G. Yohe, and R. Zimmerman

advantage of funding from multiple sources. Many documents, guidance platforms, and budgeting processes (e.g., sustainability plans, master plans, land use plans, transportation plans, capital improvement plans) could benefit from integrating climate science and information on risks and opportunities. For the most part, when climate information is used in preparing these plans, it is based on historical weather patterns rather than on projections of future hazards informed by climate and impacts science

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Claire Steinweg and William J. Gutowski Jr.

, and the potentially increasing costs in the future require an understanding of how heat-stress events may change. Here we use projected climate changes from simulations for the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP; Mearns et al. 2012 , 2013 ) to assess potential changes in heat stress in the mid-twenty-first century for the greater St. Louis area in Missouri. NARCCAP is a multimodel project with a major motivation of providing regionally resolved projections for

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Victoria Reyes-García, Álvaro Fernández-Llamazares, Maximilien Guèze, and Sandrine Gallois

despite being unaware of the scientific explanations for the events, had made the connection between shifts in Pleiades brightness in June and rain fluctuations. Ethnoclimatology has grown during the last two decades with many works detailing how local observations of the environment, such as animals’ behavior, changes in plants’ morphology and physiology, patterns in clouds’ and winds’ formation and properties, or other climatic and biological phenomena, are used to forecast immediate and future

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Kelly Helm Smith, Mark E. Burbach, Michael J. Hayes, Patrick E. Guinan, Andrew J. Tyre, Brian Fuchs, Tonya Haigh, and Mark D. Svoboda

livestock producers’ experience with drought. In 2018, the NDMC implemented newer, easier-to-use technology to collect observations and saw a jump in the magnitude of event-driven reporting in Missouri, where several trends converged to produce a bumper crop of reports, in contrast to previous experience, as described below. This article examines the interests, circumstances, history, and recruitment messaging that coincided to produce a high number of reports in a short time; whether and how

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Rachael N. Cross and Daphne S. LaDue

EMs). EMs often sought information (e.g., examining radar or using personal networks to get reports of weather conditions) to make up for the lack of detail ( Hoss and Fischbeck 2016 ). Kox et al. (2018) , interested in promoting the use of severe and hydrologic forecast information, found that German EMs and civil protection authorities already compared and contrasted severe weather forecast information from different sources to gauge uncertainty and be prepared to act. Uncertainty information

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Tyler A. Beeton and Shannon M. McNeeley

. Travis (2010) reviewed the natural hazards and disasters literature and identified six response types that reduce exposure to extremes and vulnerability. These included technological control and intervention; physical protection and barriers; monitoring, forecasting, and early warning systems; building codes and engineering design standards; relief and insurance mechanisms; and land-use changes. Wilhite et al. (2000) and others at the National Drought Mitigation Center applied the cycle of

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Nathan Beech and Micah J. Hewer

. , and N. J. Cherry , 1988 : Prediction of a district’s grape-ripening capacity using a latitude–temperature index (LTI) . Amer. J. Enol. Vitic. , 39 , 19 – 28 . Jia , G. , and Coauthors , 2019 : Land–climate interactions. Climate Change and Land: An IPCC Special Report on Climate Change, Desertification, Land Degradation, Sustainable Land Management, Food Security, and Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in Terrestrial Ecosystems , P. R. Shukla et al., Eds., Cambridge University Press, 131

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