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William Bluman and John E. Hart

degree, capture thecharacteristic pattern of the lee-wave that was observed.However, the amplitude of the motion appears to beffnderestimated by the linear model calculations. Thisis in agreement with conclusions by other investigatorsbased on comparisons between observations and lineartheories in different situations. Our conclusions, basedon the present results, appear in section 6.2. Synoptic situation The Doppler lidar wind data were collected at approximately 1700 UTC (0900 PST), about midway

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Suzanne M. Zurn-Birkhimer, Ernest M. Agee, and Zbigniew Sorbjan

) properties of the interfacial layer at the top of the convective zone; 2) microscale and mesoscale wind fields in the convective layer, based on lidar observations; and 3) large eddy simulations (LESs) of convective motions based on volume-imaging lidar datasets. One of the most significant cold air outbreaks (CAO) during Lake-ICE occurred on 13 January 1998, and this CAO event has been the principal focus of the research objectives addressed in this study, as well as the papers cited above. A fourth

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Jefferson R. Snider, David Leon, and Zhien Wang

stratocumulus ( Hudson and Svensson 1995 ; Hudson and Yum 1997 ). Using airborne measurements of CCN, updraft and cloud microphysical properties, we extend the observations and analyses of the latter two publications. We also compare model predictions of N to values observed within clouds and retrieved using lidar. Our dataset was collected within one of Earth’s four climatologically relevant marine stratocumulus cloud sheets, and our use of airborne lidar for N retrieval is unique. This paper is

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David A. Rahn, Thomas R. Parish, and David Leon

developing and maintaining the well-mixed middle layer bounded by two stable layers. The segment of the return isobaric leg near sounding 19 (thick black line in Fig. 2 ) is examined to help understand the variation in the alongshore direction. This flight leg is oriented nearly alongshore at a heading of 135°. Although these observations are taken over an hour after sounding 19, some indication of key features and processes at work should be present. The lidar reveals that the depth of the MBL along

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Nicolas Ferlay, Timothy J. Garrett, and Fanny Minvielle

appearance of a field of mammatus lobes, the pendulous features sometimes observed hanging from the base of stratiform storm clouds ( Schultz et al. 2006 ). What stands out is the very large size of the lobes and the fact that they protrude upward from the cloud top. The suggestion is that these cloudy formations have the potential to facilitate stratospheric–tropospheric exchange through vigorous turbulent mixing. 2. Observations a. Radar and lidar observations The data used in this study are derived

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Matthew D. Shupe, Pavlos Kollias, P. Ola G. Persson, and Greg M. McFarquhar

this type of retrieval is 50%–75% for IWC and ∼40% for particle size. Vertically resolved cloud liquid microphysical properties are not readily available from this suite of measurements. Thus, the cloud liquid is estimated by an adiabatic liquid water profile—computed from the lidar cloud base, radar cloud top, and radiosonde thermodynamic measurements—that is then scaled by the statistically derived MWR LWP. Aircraft observations indicate that the cloud liquid is not always adiabatically

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Sally A. McFarlane and K. Franklin Evans

atmospheric heating rates and solar radiative flux at the ocean surface, which influence atmospheric circulations. Due to the remote location and difficulty in establishing observational platforms, there are few ground-based observations of surface radiation and cloud properties in the TWP region. The Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) was conducted from November 1992 through February 1993 in the western Pacific region bordered by 10°N–10°S, 140°E

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Vincent Noel and Hélène Chepfer

Atmospheric Sciences Coupled with Observations from a Lidar (PARASOL)] could give helpful insight into the orientation behavior of ice crystals in cirrus clouds, information that is otherwise very hard to get and still largely unknown. However, there are still some limitations with this technique. For example, future progress in radiative transfer computations may show that the influence of multiple-scattering effects can not be considered similar in isotropic and anisotropic media, as was assumed in the

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Andrew J. Heymsfield

the Marshall Islands (near the equator) on 17 December 1973. Measurements were obtained in situfrom a slow ascent through the cloud by a WB57Faircraft from 1349 to 1352 (Kwajalein Standard Time,KST), and remotely from a Stanford Research InstituteMark IX lidar system from 0900 to 1600 (KST). Theaircraft size spectrum measurement device (discussedlater) first detected particles at a height of 16.2 km and * The National Center for Atmospheric Research is funded by theNational Science Foundation

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Takamichi Iguchi, Teruyuki Nakajima, Alexander P. Khain, Kazuo Saito, Toshihiko Takemura, Hajime Okamoto, Tomoaki Nishizawa, and Wei-Kuo Tao

, provides significant information about the structures of clouds and precipitation. Another project, the EarthCARE mission, is currently being prepared; both 94-GHz Doppler radar and lidar will be loaded on the satellite. It is therefore timely to make a study using datasets from cloud radar observations. The validation of cloud modeling is a way to make use of the measurements of cloud radars. The majority of prior studies have used radar-signal simulation packages, such as QuickBeam ( Haynes et al

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