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Paul A. Dirmeyer and Kaye L. Brubaker

Mississippi River basin, Sudradjat et al. (2003) extended the study to interannual variations, and Sudradjat (2002) applied the approach to the Amazon basin. The method has also been applied to examine moisture sources for specific extreme precipitation events over the Mediterranean basin ( Reale et al. 2001 ; Turato et al. 2004 ), and to validate isotopic analyses over Russia ( Kurita et al. 2004 ). Here we extend the analysis of Brubaker et al. (2001) to all land areas of the globe. The datasets

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Veljko Petković and Christian D. Kummerow

by this flood event. The area itself contains two catchments: 1) the Adriatic, which is the southernmost 15% of the box shown in Fig. 1 that did not flood; and 2) the Black Sea, which is the upper 85% of the box with two major rivers (Danube and Sava) and a dozen regional-size basins where the majority of flooding occurred. The study area (42°–47°N, 15°–21°E) is defined by the flood region and its Black Sea upstream catchment. It ranges in elevation from 100 m in the predominantly flat plains

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Arlene G. Laing

; Pontrelli et al. 1999 ). Elsewhere, Speer and Geerts (1994) developed a synoptic mesoalpha-scale climatology of flash floods for Sydney, Australia, and Doswell et al. (1998) examined heavy precipitation episodes in the western Mediterranean. Based on those studies, forecasters are advised to examine the amplitude of midtropospheric circulations and the position of low- and upper-level jet axes and jet streaks ( Harnack et al. 2001 ). Often a number of meteorological processes interact on different

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Cristián Chadwick, Jorge Gironás, Sebastián Vicuña, and Francisco Meza

; King et al. 2015 ; King et al. 2016 ; Lopez et al. 2018 ), sea level ( Carson et al. 2016 ; Lyu et al. 2014 ), current system upwelling ( Brady et al. 2017 ), and different ocean properties ( Keller et al. 2014 ; Henson et al. 2017 ). Finding ToE is relevant as it serves as a marker of human-induced climate change. Recent studies also mention its importance for decision-making, especially when implementing adaptation and mitigation plans ( Nguyen et al. 2018 ; Zhou et al. 2018 ). ToE is most

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Marco Borga, Paolo Boscolo, Francesco Zanon, and Marco Sangati

to characterize the spatial variability of flood response. The 29 August 2003 flood is also of particular interest because it provides an end member in the spectrum of impacts of antecedent soil moisture on extreme floods. The event resulted indeed as a combination of two extreme events, since very large accumulations of rainfall over 3–6 h occurred at the end of a climatic anomaly of prolonged drought and warm conditions in Europe and over the Mediterranean. Analysis of temperature records over

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G. Boni, A. Parodi, and F. Siccardi

variability of IR 1 in Piedmont seem to be sensitive to finer orographic details. This can be explained by looking again at Fig. 3 . The morphology of the mountain chain in Liguria is relatively simple when compared to the orography of Piedmont as it is almost a single wave from the sea to the floodplain. Thus, a 90% variance DEM (bottom-left panel) does not add, for Liguria, any significant detail of mountain shape to those given by the 80% variance DEM (bottom-right panel). In Piedmont, the presence

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Yang Yang, Thian Yew Gan, and Xuezhi Tan

(MEI) is selected to represent ENSO. The PDO is the leading principal component (PC1) of North Pacific (poleward of 20°N) monthly sea surface temperature anomalies since 1900 ( Mantua and Hare 2002 ). The warm and cold phases of PDO have an influence on the precipitation of North America. For example, winter precipitation in the western United States ( Brown and Comrie 2004 ) and western Canada has been found to be affected by the PDO ( Gan et al. 2007 ). The PNA depicts a quadripole of 500-hPa

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Deepti Joshi, Marco Carrera, Stephane Bélair, and Sylvie Leroyer

System ( Bélair et al. 2003a ), in which screen-level observations of air temperature and relative humidity are assimilated. Evaporation over open water surfaces is simply calculated as potential evaporation dependent on the water surface temperature and surface-layer turbulent exchanges. Finally, surface characteristics related to orography, vegetation and soil characteristics, land–sea mask, and surface roughness length fields are produced using a geophysical processor software ( Mailhot et al

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Rahman Davtalab, Dingbao Wang, Tingju Zhu, and Claudia Ringler

the Indian Ocean tropical belt from the south. As shown in Fig. 1a , the region is divided into two subregions by the Delhi Ridge. The western part consists of the Punjab Plain and the Haryana Plain (Indus), and the eastern part consists of the Ganga–Brahmaputra River basin (Ganges). Figure 1b shows the land surface topography, which varies from sea surface level in the south to more than 8000 m above mean sea level in the north. Fig . 1. The study region: (a) the IGB and the grid points of the

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Masamichi Ohba, Shinji Kadokura, Yoshikatsu Yoshida, Daisuke Nohara, and Yasushi Toyoda

the baiu season are relatively large in western Japan during this season. As supplementary rainfall data, we also use the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) dataset ( Xie and Arkin 1997 ). The Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature, version 3 (ERSST.v3; Smith et al. 2008 ), dataset was also used for analysis. Fig . 1. (a) Climatology and (b) standard deviation of daily-mean rainfall in the baiu season obtained from high-resolution precipitation data

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