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B. H. Burgess, Andre R. Erler, and Theodore G. Shepherd

and the Nastrom–Gage spectrum, with a smoother transition than found in either the IPY analysis or by Koshyk and Hamilton (2001) . However, we note that they tuned their horizontal hyperdiffusion to obtain the observed spectrum, and that they had relatively coarse vertical resolution: 24 levels as opposed to 91 levels in the ECMWF IPY analysis. Earlier deterministic versions of the ECMWF T799 forecast model did not exhibit mesoscale shallowing. Palmer (2001) and Palmer et al. (2005) in fact

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Qiu Yang and Andrew J. Majda

an eastward-moving convective envelope several thousand kilometers in scale. Understanding the scale interaction between mesoscale disturbances and the large-scale wave envelope is crucial for explaining the propagation properties and spatial patterns of CCEWs and improving global climate models (GCMs) and the skill of global weather forecasting. Although these multiscale interactions have been studied based on observations ( Straub and Kiladis 2002 ) and numerical simulations ( Grabowski and

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Urs Germann, Isztar Zawadzki, and Barry Turner

. L. Austin , 1978 : The evaluation of two years of a real time operation of a short-term precipitation forecasting procedure (SHARP). J. Appl. Meteor. , 17 , 1778 – 1787 . Bellon , A. , and I. Zawadzki , 1994 : Forecasting of hourly accumulations of precipitation by optimal extrapolation of radar maps. J. Hydrol. , 157 , 211 – 233 . Bocquet , F. , 2002 : Synoptic-scale signatures of warm-season mesoscale vortices in the Montreal region Master’s thesis, Dept. of Atmospheric

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Chun-Chieh Wu, Guo-Yuan Lien, Jan-Huey Chen, and Fuqing Zhang

. , 53 , 343 – 367 . Fujita , T. , D. J. Stensrud , and D. C. Dowell , 2008 : Using precipitation observations in a mesoscale short-range ensemble analysis and forecasting system. Wea. Forecasting , 23 , 357 – 372 . Gaspari , G. , and S. E. Cohn , 1999 : Construction of correlation functions in two and three dimensions. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 125 , 723 – 757 . Grell , G. A. , and D. Dévényi , 2002 : A generalized approach to parameterizing convection combining

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George H. Bryan and J. Michael Fritsch

Publishing, PO Box 1139, Collingwood, Victoria 3006, Australia.] . Biggerstaff, M. I., and R. A. Houze, 1991: Kinematic and precipitation structure of the 10–11 June 1985 squall line. Mon. Wea. Rev., 119, 3034–3065. Bjerknes, J., 1919: On the structure of moving cyclones. Geofys. Publ., 1, 1–8. Bluestein, H. B., 1986: Fronts and jet streaks: A theoretical perspective. Mesoscale Meteorology and Forecasting, P. S. Ray, Ed., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 173–215. Blumen, W., N. Gamage, R. L. Grossman

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Robert A. Houze Jr., Shuyi S. Chen, David E. Kingsmill, Yolande Serra, and Sandra E. Yuter

: Characteristics of isolated convective storms. Mesoscale Meteorology and Forecasting, P. S. Ray, Ed., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 331–358. ——, ——, and R. Rotunno, 1988: The structure and evolution of numerically simulated squall lines. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 1990–2013. Weller, R. A., and S. P. Anderson, 1996: Surface meteorology and air&ndash≃a fluxes in the western equatorial Pacific warm pool during the TOGA Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment. J. Climate, 9, 1959–1990. Xu, K.-M., and K. A

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Jun Peng, Lifeng Zhang, Yu Luo, and Chunhui Xiong

and Forecasting model (WRF v3.2) ( Skamarock et al. 2008 ). To derive the spectral HKE budget equation suitable for convective systems, such as the mei-yu front system, we extended the pseudoincompressible approximation, which was proposed by Durran (1989) as an improved representation of the anelastic approximation, to a general moist atmosphere (see appendix A of Part I in detail). Spectral HKE budget analysis demonstrated that the mesoscale HKE in the upper troposphere is deposited through

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Kerry Emanuel and Fuqing Zhang

. Rappin et al. (2010) used the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model to perform three-dimensional simulations of tropical cyclogenesis at high (convection permitting) horizontal resolution. They also demonstrated that surface intensification of vortices begins only if and when a mesoscale column in the storm’s core becomes nearly saturated. Before that happens, or in failed cases of genesis, convective downdrafts quench any tendency of enhanced surface enthalpy fluxes to increase boundary

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Steven E. Koch and John McCarthy

that have directbearing upon the formation of severe convective systems along dtylines. It has shown that monitoringof boundary-layer moisture convergence fields is notlikely to prove very beneficial in severe storm forecasting unless the thermal and pressure fields are alsomonitored. Surface data has its limitatibns for giving insightinto mechanisms that ,help trigger deep convection,even on the mesoscale where conditions aloft supposedly do not vary as dramatically as those at thesurface. In

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Sebastian Brune and Erich Becker

advection. This may be interpreted as a kind of backscattering of kinetic energy within the resolved scales. Palmer (2001) stressed the idea of a subgrid-scale parameterization that allows for backscattering of kinetic energy from the unresolved to the resolved scales. More recently, Berner et al. (2009) have attributed the inability of a forecast model to simulate the proper energy spectrum of the mesoscales to the lack of a backscattering parameterization. They showed that such a measure can

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