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Justin M. Sieglaff, Timothy J. Schmit, W. Paul Menzel, and Steven A. Ackerman

-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP) satellite. These high spectral resolution sounders scan the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum with thousands of spectrally narrow channels. They resolve the fine structure within the infrared window that contains information on the thermodynamic structure of the lower troposphere. High spectral resolution sounder data, such as that from AIRS, improves global numerical weather prediction (NWP) forecasts out to 7

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Stanley A. Changnon

1. Introduction Weather data from first-order stations (FOS) manned by trained personnel of the National Weather Service are generally considered to have high quality for climatological applications. Most of these stations have been in operation since late in the nineteenth century, and their data are widely used as input for structural design, operational planning, and research. A recent project assessed data at FOS in the contiguous United States for snowfall events that produced 15.2 cm (6

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Nicholas A. Gasperoni, Ming Xue, Robert D. Palmer, and Jidong Gao

(NCEP) operational North American Mesoscale Model (NAM) 12-km analysis as the background. The domain is 450 km × 420 km and has a horizontal resolution of 1 km. In the vertical, a stretched grid is used with a resolution of 20 m near the surface and 800 m at the model top, and an average vertical grid spacing of 400 m. The lateral boundary conditions used for the truth simulation were also taken from the NAM 12-km analysis and forecasts every 3 h. The truth simulation is run for five forecast hours

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Bruce Brasnett and Dorina Surcel Colan

( Chelton et al. 2007 ). The negative covariance between concentration of sea ice and SST has been well documented ( Caya et al. 2010 ), making SST information an important input to assimilation schemes for sea ice ( Buehner et al. 2016 ). At the Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC), forecast models use the SST analysis from the microscale ( Leroyer et al. 2014 ) to the global scale ( Charron et al. 2012 ). As part of its operational environmental prediction program, the CMC produces a daily, global, 0

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E. V. Stanev, F. Ziemer, J. Schulz-Stellenfleth, J. Seemann, J. Staneva, and K.-W. Gurgel

used in the present study includes in situ time series from stationary stations [acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP)] and high-frequency (HF) radars. The forecasting suite includes nested 3D hydrodynamic models running in a data assimilation mode that are forced with meteorological forecast data. The aim of this paper is to review the present status of the nowcasting–forecasting system for the German Bight, focusing on the HF radar data assimilation, operational aspects, and product validation

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David Schvartzman, Sebastián Torres, and Tian-You Yu

-tracking in operational meteorology research . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00148.1 , in press . Brooks , H. E. , 2004 : On the relationship of tornado path length and width to intensity . Wea. Forecasting , 19 , 310 – 319 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0434(2004)019<0310:OTROTP>2.0.CO;2 . Bruce , N. , and J. Tsotsos , 2007 : Attention based on information maximization . J. Vision , 7 , 950 , doi: 10.1167/7.9.950 . Cover , T. M. , and J. A. Thomas , 2006 : Elements of

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Sim D. Aberson, Kathryn J. Sellwood, and Paul A. Leighton

1. Introduction Aberson (2008) found large Global Forecast System tropical cyclone track forecast degradations due to the assimilation of dropwindsonde data from operational synoptic surveillance missions during the 2004 and 2005 hurricane seasons. These degradations were due to either erroneous data assimilated into the models or imperfections in the data assimilation system operational at the time. Degradations to Hurricane Ivan (2004) forecasts were due to the assimilation of dropwindsonde

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Alain Caya, Mark Buehner, and Tom Carrieres

northern populations to adapt. The direct use of accurate and timely sea ice information, such as the operational products of the Canadian Ice Service (CIS), can result in significant economic and safety benefits for all such activities. An important secondary impact of more accurate sea ice information is improved numerical weather prediction (NWP) for northern regions, especially when coupled ice–ocean–atmosphere forecast models are used. An example of this is the experimental Gulf of St. Lawrence

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Frank H. Ruggiero, John Michalakes, Thomas Nehrkorn, George D. Modica, and Xiaolei Zou

Météo-France have been running 4DVAR for several years ( Rabier et al. 2000 ; Gauthier and Thépaut 2001 ), generating analyses for global forecast models. More recently the meteorological centers of the United Kingdom, Canada, and Japan have followed suit. In addition, the Japan Meteorological Agency has started running a mesoscale 4DVAR data assimilation system. Typically, at the operational centers a form of incremental 4DVAR (e.g., Courtier et al. 1994 ; Veersé and Thépaut 1998 ) is used where

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Michiko Otsuka, Hiromu Seko, Masahiro Hayashi, and Ko Koizumi

cloud-affected IR radiances operationally, though the assimilation of high-frequency GEO radiances has the potential to benefit short-range forecasts ( Geer et al. 2018 ), as has been demonstrated recently in mesoscale systems utilizing Himawari-8 data ( Honda et al. 2018b ; Minamide and Zhang 2018 ; Okamoto et al. 2019 ). Although the direct assimilation of VIS reflectances operationally seems to take extra time, fast radiative transfer models are under development. Scheck et al. (2018

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