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Rongqian Yang, Michael Ek, and Jesse Meng

necessary to understand the characteristics of water and energy climate and to point out the limitations and issues that still affect the ability to develop adequate budgets. Assessing surface energy and water balances for the Mississippi River basin has been a key objective and a focused region of the past Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Continental Scale International Project (GCIP). Using data from a variety of sources, the basin budgets have been studied extensively, for example, by

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Yoshiki Fukutomi, Hiromichi Igarashi, Kooiti Masuda, and Tetsuzo Yasunari

balance over northern Eurasia on interannual timescales is needed to facilitate understanding of physical linkages with not only regional climatic conditions, but also with various climate subsystems. During the past two decades, there has been considerable interest in the hydrological cycle in high-latitude land areas. The primary reason is that the water balance in these high-latitude areas is thought to drive the Arctic climate, as reviewed by Walsh (2000) . For instance in the Mackenzie River

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Yongkang Xue, Jinjun Ji, Shufen Sun, Guoxiong Wu, K-M. Lau, Isabelle Poccard, Hyun-Suk Kang, Renhe Zhang, John C. Schaake, Jian Yun Zhang, and Yanjun Jiao

; Lettenmaier et al. 1994 ; Maurer et al. 2002 ). This study investigates the seasonal and interannual runoff variability in China at the continental scale and its relationship with precipitation, sea surface temperature (SST), and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) using river runoff and precipitation data that we obtained during the past few years. The water cycle in East Asia exhibits very high spatial and temporal variability. Often, the amplitude of the interannual variability can be as large as the

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F. M. Ralph, T. Coleman, P. J. Neiman, R. J. Zamora, and M. D. Dettinger

1. Introduction Past studies have shown that atmospheric rivers (ARs), which are regions of the lower atmosphere characterized by strong winds and large water vapor contents (usually associated with a surface cold front in the midlatitudes), are key features of the global water cycle (e.g., Zhu and Newell 1998 ), are detectable in satellite observations (see example in Fig. 1a ) ( Ralph et al. 2004 ; Neiman et al. 2008a ), and are associated with heavy rain and flooding on the U.S. West

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Munir A. Nayak, Gabriele Villarini, and A. Allen Bradley

; Hou et al. 2014 ) core satellite. Our study focuses on atmospheric rivers (ARs) and rainfall during the IFloodS period. ARs are narrow (less than 400 km in width) and long (1000+ km in length) regions in the lower levels of the troposphere that transport large amounts of water vapor from the tropics and extratropics ( Newell et al. 1992 ; Newell and Zhu 1994 ). In extratropical cyclones, ARs generally form in the warm sector in the presence of low-level jets (LLJs) ahead of cold fronts. Because

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Samar Minallah and Valeriy Y. Ivanov

1. Introduction The Indus River, located in the western and sub-Himalayan region of South Asia, originates in the Tibetan Plateau and flows through the Himalaya–Karakoram–Hindu Kush (HKH) ranges and fertile alluvial plains before discharging into the Arabian Sea. The transboundary Indus basin is shared between Pakistan, India, China, and Afghanistan, where the water supply from the surface and groundwater sources serves a population of over 300 million with rapidly growing density and feeds one

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Gang Zhao, Huilin Gao, and Lan Cuo

practice for evaluating peak flow changes at the river basin scale is to drive hydrologic models using spatially (and temporally) downscaled outputs from GCMs ( Dibike and Coulibaly 2005 ; Ntegeka et al. 2014 ; Tian et al. 2016 ). However, both the downscaling techniques (dynamical or statistical) and the hydrologic models (among which the complexity in the representation of physical processes varies significantly) contribute to additional uncertainties of the simulated peak flows. Previous studies

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Clara Draper and Graham Mills

1. Introduction Arid regions are thought to be particularly sensitive to global climate change and yet the response of the world’s arid regions to future climate changes is not well understood ( Lioubimtseva 2004 ). In the semiarid Murray–Darling River basin in southeast Australia, observations over the last half-century already suggest that rising regional temperatures have increased the severity of droughts ( Nicholls 2004 ). However, the impacts of increasing CO 2 and/or global climate

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E. Morrow, J. X. Mitrovica, and G. Fotopoulos

1. Introduction The Mackenzie River basin (MRB) is the second largest basin in North America, with a drainage area of about 1.8 × 10 6 km 2 , and is the largest basin on the continent to drain freshwater into the Arctic Ocean ( Woo and Thorne 2003 ). Freshwater discharge affects the salinity of the Arctic Ocean ( Macdonald et al. 1999 ) and in turn the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation ( Broecker 1997 ). Partly because of this connection to the global climate system, the overall

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Tomoki Ushiyama, Takahiro Sayama, Yuya Tatebe, Susumu Fujioka, and Kazuhiko Fukami

1. Introduction During the summer of 2010, Pakistan experienced the worst flood disaster in history. The westward shift of monsoonal rainfall caused extraordinarily severe large-scale floods, resulting in a devastating disaster over a wide area of the country. The series of floods killed more than 1700 people and affected 18 million people along the Indus River ( United Nations 2010 ). The flooding first struck the northwestern part of Pakistan, particularly the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

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