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Andrew G. Pauling, Cecilia M. Bitz, Inga J. Smith, and Patricia J. Langhorne

1. Introduction Sea ice is a critical component of Earth’s climate, controlling ocean–atmosphere heat exchange and driving deep ocean convection ( Vaughan et al. 2013 ). It plays an important role in the global climate because of the sea ice–albedo feedback, which has been a major factor in the rapid decline in Arctic sea ice extent ( Screen and Simmonds 2010 ). Earth is warming ( Vaughan et al. 2013 ), including the upper 700 m of the Southern Ocean ( Gille 2008 ), although sea surface

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Joe M. Osborne, James A. Screen, and Mat Collins

1. Introduction The recent loss of Arctic sea ice ( Stroeve et al. 2012a , b ) has been one of the most notable aspects of late twentieth-century and early twenty-first century climate change. A robust human contribution to the observed (1979 onward) Arctic sea ice loss has been detected ( Min et al. 2008 ; Kay et al. 2011 ), especially since the early 1990s when the rate of decline increased ( Comiso 2012 ). It is predicted that Arctic sea ice will continue to decline, with a seasonally ice

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Matthew Watts, Wieslaw Maslowski, Younjoo J. Lee, Jaclyn Clement Kinney, and Robert Osinski

1. Introduction The Arctic is warming at twice the rate of the rest of the planet, evidenced by rising surface air temperatures in response to greenhouse gases ( Serreze et al. 2009 ; Serreze and Barry 2011 ; Taylor et al. 2013 ; IPCC 2019 ). One of the most striking reflections of this Arctic amplification ( Serreze and Francis 2006 ) is the accelerated decrease in sea ice extent (SIE; Meier et al. 2017 ) observed for each month of the year over the satellite record since 1978 ( Serreze

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Seungmok Paik, Seung-Ki Min, Yeon-Hee Kim, Baek-Min Kim, Hideo Shiogama, and Joonghyeok Heo

1. Introduction Arctic sea ice has been melting at an accelerating rate ( Meier et al. 2007 ; Comiso et al. 2008 ). The Arctic regions have been the focus of many climate change studies, since climate signals are expected to be amplified by ice and snow albedo feedback over Arctic regions ( Holland and Bitz 2003 ). The Arctic sea ice extent (SIE) decline has been largely attributed to anthropogenic influence ( Hegerl et al. 2007 ; Min et al. 2008 ). Wang and Overland (2009 , 2012

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Salil Mahajan, Rong Zhang, and Thomas L. Delworth

1. Introduction Observations show an accelerating decline of the Arctic sea ice cover (e.g., Comiso et al. 2008 ; Kwok et al. 2009 ) and sea ice thickness ( Rothrock et al. 2008 ; Kwok and Rothrock 2009 ) in recent decades. While trends in the long-term atmospheric circulation over the Arctic are not consistent with the declining trends in the Arctic sea ice exhibited in the satellite record since 1979 (e.g., Deser and Teng 2008 ), the declining trends in the Arctic sea ice have been found

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Liping Ma, Tim Woollings, Richard G. Williams, Doug Smith, and Nick Dunstone

: 40 different ensemble members are initialized with the same ocean and sea ice state from the assimilation run and only differ in the atmosphere by random seeds supplied to a stochastic physics scheme. An ensemble is created by providing different seeds to a stochastic physics scheme ( Bowler et al. 2009 ). This model dataset then comprises 40 ensembles over each month of the 35 years (hereafter named ensemble data). The model analysis is also compared with ERA-Interim reanalysis monthly and daily

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Yuan Wang, Jonathan H. Jiang, Hui Su, Yong-Sang Choi, Lei Huang, Jianping Guo, and Yuk L. Yung

1. Introduction As a strong climate feedback, the Arctic sea ice melt under global warming ( Serreze et al. 2007 ; Comiso et al. 2008 ) plays a pivotal role in amplifying temperature increases in the high latitudes ( Holland and Bitz 2003 ; Screen and Simmonds 2010 ) and therefore drastically alters the global energy balance, general circulation, and even midlatitude weather systems ( Cohen et al. 2014 ). The long-term variations of the coupled atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean in the Arctic

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James A. Screen, Ian Simmonds, Clara Deser, and Robert Tomas

1. Introduction The Arctic climate is changing rapidly, with potentially far-reaching repercussions ( Symon et al. 2005 ; Solomon et al. 2007 ). Arctic sea ice is melting at an increasing rate ( Serreze et al. 2007 ; Stroeve et al. 2007 ; Comiso et al. 2008 ; Stroeve et al. 2011 ; Comiso 2012 ). In September 2007, the Arctic sea ice reached its lowest areal extent in the satellite record, around 40% below the long-term mean ( Comiso et al. 2008 ). The last five years (2007–11) have

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Mitchell Bushuk, Dimitrios Giannakis, and Andrew J. Majda

1. Introduction Sea ice is a complex and critical component of the climate system. Existing at the interface between the atmosphere and the ocean, it modulates the atmosphere’s ability to force the ocean through wind, and the ocean’s ability to force the atmosphere through sea surface temperatures (SSTs). It also regulates turbulent heat transfer between the two media. Sea ice is a truly multiscale phenomenon: its dynamics are heavily influenced by large-scale circulation of the ocean and

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Edward Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, Kyle C. Armour, Cecilia M. Bitz, and Eric DeWeaver

1. Introduction Sea ice has long been recognized as a key player in global climate (e.g., Budyko 1969 ). Through its high albedo, it reflects large amounts of incident solar radiation to outer space that would otherwise be absorbed, thus cooling the surface. It regulates the fluxes of turbulent heat between the ocean and atmosphere, acting as an insulating cap between both mediums ( Maykut 1982 ). It also plays an important role in the makeup of ocean currents by modulating the production of

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