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James E. Overland, Michael C. Spillane, Donald B. Percival, Muyin Wang, and Harold O. Mofjeld

warm temperature anomalies of the period ( Ahlmann 1948 ) and pioneered the concept of high-latitude climate variability, in contrast to the prevailing uniformitarianism. Recent studies show considerable change in the Arctic over the previous three decades in both physical and biological indicators ( Serreze et al. 2000 ; Overland et al. 2004 ). These indicators suggest a shift in atmospheric patterns such as the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and related stratospheric cooling around 1989, while

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Srdjan Dobricic, Elisabetta Vignati, and Simone Russo

can be separated into three main groups: the Arctic drivers ( Cohen et al. 2012 ; Francis and Vavrus 2012 ; Screen et al. 2013 ; Cohen et al. 2014 ; Kim et al. 2014 ) emphasizing the role of the sea ice melting and the snow cover in Siberia, tropical drivers ( Trenberth et al. 2014 ; Ding et al. 2014 ) stressing the impact of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation, and variations of extratropical SST ( Peings and Magnusdottir 2014 ; Perlwitz et al. 2015 ). Fig . 1. The trend of December

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Wanying Kang and Eli Tziperman

1. Introduction Major sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events occur in the Arctic stratosphere during winter at a frequency of about six events per decade. An SSW features a distorted or completely reversed stratospheric polar vortex, as well as tens of degrees warming within several days ( Craig et al. 1959 ; Limpasuvan et al. 2004 ). In the month following an SSW event, the Northern Hemisphere is more likely to be in the negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation (AO)/northern annular mode

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Amélie Simon, Guillaume Gastineau, Claude Frankignoul, Clément Rousset, and Francis Codron

influence of Arctic sea ice decline on global climate remains under debate, in particular its influence on midlatitudes ( Overland and Wang 2013 ; Cohen et al. 2014 ). Observational studies have linked Arctic sea ice loss in late autumn to a negative North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in winter ( King et al. 2016 ; García-Serrano et al. 2015 ; Simon et al. 2020 ), but there is still discussion on the robustness and pathway of this sea ice influence. As the observational records are short, climate

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Bingyi Wu, Jia Wang, and John E. Walsh

atmospheric forcing regimes of the Arctic sea ice, many previous studies focused mainly on the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) ( Wang et al. 1994 ; Kwok and Rothrock 1999 ; Dickson et al. 2000 ; Wu et al. 2000 ; Zhang et al. 2000 ; Kwok 2000 ; Jung and Hilmer 2001 ; and many others) and the Arctic Oscillation (AO) ( Wang and Ikeda 2000 ; Vinje 2001a ; Rigor et al. 2002 ; Zhang et al. 2003 ; Holland 2003 ). The response of sea ice to the NAO (AO) shows out of phase variations of sea ice

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Bingyi Wu, Jingzhi Su, and Rosanne D’Arrigo

://badc.nerc.ac.uk/data/hadisst/ ); 2) the monthly mean sea level pressure (SLP), SAT, winds, and geopotential heights from January 1979 to March 2013, obtained from NCEP–NCAR Reanalysis 1; 3) monthly mean global land precipitation data from 1979 to 2013 ( http://ftp.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/precip/50yr/gauge/2.5deg/format_bin/ ; Chen et al. 2002 ); and 4) the monthly mean Arctic Oscillation (AO) index for the period from 1979 to May 2013 ( http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/precip/CWlink/daily_ao_index/monthly.ao.index.b50.current

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Dehai Luo, Yiqing Xiao, Yao Yao, Aiguo Dai, Ian Simmonds, and Christian L. E. Franzke

. 2015 ), the enhanced inflow of warm waters from adjacent oceans into the Arctic ( Spielhagen et al. 2011 ), and the phase change of the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) ( Peings and Magnusdottir 2014 ). In the recent decade, extreme cold events have occurred frequently over the Eurasian continents ( Zhang et al. 2012 ; Tang et al. 2013 ; Mori et al. 2014 ). The presence of a midlatitude cold anomaly over a region in Eurasia corresponds to the so-called warm Arctic–cold Eurasian (WACE

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Marius Årthun, Tor Eldevik, and Lars H. Smedsrud

. The ensemble trend regression between SLP and BSO volume transport yields a pattern that is dominated by low pressure over the central Arctic ( Fig. 11b ). The pattern is similar to the leading mode of Northern Hemisphere (>20°N) atmospheric circulation variability in CESM-LE, as inferred from an empirical orthogonal function analysis on wintertime SLP (not shown), and is reminiscent of the Arctic Oscillation (AO; Thompson and Wallace 1998 ). Trends in the associated principal component (“AO

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Ignatius G. Rigor, Roger L. Colony, and Seelye Martin

of a naturally occurring mode of variability in the Arctic climate system. However, none of these studies of changes or oscillations in surface air temperature cover the entire Arctic, which has been considered a data void ( Chapman and Walsh 1993 ). The research community has simply lacked an accurate SAT dataset, which is essential for studies of climate change. Proxies for studies of climate change such as research using satellite data have helped but have not filled this void. In sections 2

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Hans W. Chen, Fuqing Zhang, and Richard B. Alley

observations ( Screen and Simmonds 2013a ). Many modeling studies with forced Arctic sea ice reduction have found that decreased sea ice coverage in the Arctic leads to a circulation pattern in winter that projects onto the negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation (AO; Alexander et al. 2004 ; Deser et al. 2010 ; Hopsch et al. 2012 ; Jaiser et al. 2012 ; Liu et al. 2012 ; Peings and Magnusdottir 2014 ; Screen et al. 2013 ). Contrary to these results, the large-scale atmospheric responses in some

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