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Samuel J. Childs and Russ S. Schumacher

understanding of, for example, “how far north the warm moist air [would] make it” (TV2.1) and “the typical questions concerning boundary layer moisture return and instability that we have in the winter” (NWS2.1). NWS1.4 addressed the difficulty of forecasting storm mode: “Forecasting the mode of convection . . . was also a significant challenge. I think that we were a little unclear about whether we would be dealing with a linear band of convection or individual cells. When it became clear that we would see

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Alison M. Meadow, Daniel B. Ferguson, Zack Guido, Alexandra Horangic, Gigi Owen, and Tamara Wall

stakeholder experiences. Finally, the committee created a boundary object—in this case a report—which was used as a formative tool to vet and debate scientific and other policy-relevant information as well as translate technical information to reach multiple audiences. By working at the intersection of several boundaries (science/policy and general public/policy makers), the committee was able to craft recommendations for a “worst-case” sea level projection that went beyond the then-current IPCC sea level

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Chie Sakakibara

bowhead whale is the foundational entity through which all elements of Arctic life are integrated—sea, land, animal, and human. Indeed, the bowhead remains central to Iñupiaq life and sustains traditional rituals and ceremonies ( Boeri 1983 ; Stoker and Krupnik 1993 ; Bodenhorn 2001 ; Brewster 2004 ; Hess 1999 ; Lowenstein 1992 , 1993 ; Turner 1990 , 1993 ; Sakakibara 2008 , 2009 , 2010 ; Zumwalt 1988 ). Fig . 1. Map of the North Slope Borough, Alaska (courtesy of J. Jelacic). Currently

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Kevin D. Ash, Ronald L. Schumann III, and Gregg C. Bowser

precipitation forecasts, users form mental representations of uncertainty according to their own experiences or perceptions ( Morss et al. 2008 , 2010 ). Similarly, nonmeteorologists’ mental schemas of uncertainty for visual representations of tornado warnings may be very different from those of meteorologists. Thus, it is prudent to investigate how the general public interprets the current deterministic-style SBW visual format and begin to understand how a change from a deterministic-style to a

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Shannon M. McNeeley

individuals or families within the tribes), and fee simple land (privately owned, often by nontribal members), making it very difficult for tribal environmental governance and management within the originally established reservation boundaries ( Ford and Giles 2015 ). This land ownership system is unique to Indian reservations in the United States, where many Native Americans themselves are not only landless, but also lack management authority of the resources on that land that were originally granted to

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Sandy Smith-Nonini

fabric of reality” (p. 4). While our societies are increasingly managed by experts and specialists, their license to solve problems is based on respecting disciplinary boundaries. Morin argues “we have thus come to scorn general ideas since, it is claimed such ideas are ‘built in the air’ or lack proof.” Meadows (2008) viewed boundaries between systems (including academic fields) as having high diversity and argued that they should be considered permeable or temporal, depending on the questions

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Danielle E. Nagele and Joseph E. Trainor

Erickson 2010 ), the importance of being precise becomes more apparent. Given this information, in 2007 the NWS began using a new warning method called storm-based warnings (SBWs). The SBW method attempts to add geographic specificity by issuing warnings that are not specifically restricted to geopolitical boundaries ( NWS 2007 ). These polygons are constructed based on the storm motion and the location of the main updraft. While there is no set method for determining the boundaries for the polygon

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Carolyn Kousky

comparisons of aid given with damages from the disasters. Section 4 presents the results of econometric analyses designed to generate hypotheses about the determinants of federal disaster aid. Section 5 concludes the paper. 2. Background on disaster aid The Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, passed in 1988 and later amended, provides the current authority for federal disaster relief in the United States. Before federal dollars can be disbursed after a disaster, the

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Walker S. Ashley, Stephen Strader, Troy Rosencrants, and Andrew J. Krmenec

increased though time ( Changnon et al. 2000 ; Bouwer 2011 ; Field et al. 2012 ). Uncovering and quantifying the source(s) of these trends is an area of continual dialogue and controversy in hazard assessment research (e.g., Trenberth et al. 2011 ; Kunkel et al. 2013 ), largely because of the inadequacies of current geophysical event and socioeconomic datasets ( Kunkel et al. 1999 ; Höppe and Pielke 2006 ; Lerner-Lam 2007 ; Bouwer 2011 ; Kahn and Kelman 2012 ). However, certainties do exist

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Mimi Stith, Alessandra Giannini, John del Corral, Susana Adamo, and Alex de Sherbinin

institutional responses to late-twentieth-century drought The Sahel reached its current prominence in the study of human–environment interactions because of the well-documented environmental crisis that occurred with the abrupt onset and persistence of multiyear drought in the late 1960s ( Glantz 1977 ). Persistent drought led to widespread food insecurity into the 1970s and 1980s, with acute episodes during 1968–73 and 1982–84 causing significant human loss. The climatic shift from wet conditions in the

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