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Julia M. Slingo, U. C. Mohanty, M. Tiedtke, and R. P. Pearce

80 rob. Further evidence of thedeepening of the total moist layer by shallow convection is given in Tiedtke et al. (1988). 3. REVISED INFRARED RADIATION SCHEME The radiation scheme used in the ECMWF modelincorporates not only the effects of gaseous absorptionand emission, but also scattering by air molecules,aerosols and cloud water droplets. The main problemis one of finding an economical way of treating theinteraction between the scattering processes, which canbe assumed to be "grey" (i

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Man-Yau Chan, Fuqing Zhang, Xingchao Chen, and L. Ruby Leung

2017 ). It is thus a challenge to constrain subsynoptic errors over the tropical oceans using in situ observations alone ( Ying et al. 2018 ). In contrast, spatially dense remote infrared observations are frequently available from geostationary satellites. These high spatiotemporal resolution observations might have the potential to improve the constraining of subsynoptic features over tropical oceans. Early direct uses of geostationary infrared satellite radiance observations in DA were mostly

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Clifford Mass and Alan Robock

temperature predictions of Model Output Statistics (MOS), probably the best objective forecasts of what would have happened without the eruption, and the actual observations. Finally, we discuss the implications of the above re sults on the importance of volcanic aerosols on the infrared and visible radiation budgets.2. Methodology For the mesoscale network of surface stations inthe northwest United States (Fig. 1), hourly maps- r - /''..r[. r' - SURFACE OBSERVATION 0 MOS LOCATION ~ MT ST HELENS

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Xiaoqing Wu, Xin-Zhong Liang, and Sunwook Park

longwave radiative fluxes are obtained using data measured at 22 solar infrared radiation stations (SIRS; ). The surface shortwave radiative flux averaged over 22 SIRS are about 30 W m −2 smaller than that obtained from Li’s estimates. This deficit was attributed to the inability of the limited number of SIRS in representing the surface inhomogeneity that has large impacts on the domain-averaged shortwave radiative fluxes ( Li et al. 2002 ). The

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.REFERENCES1. D. L.Brooks,ATabularMethodfor the Computation ofTemperatureChange by Infrared Radiation in the FreeAtmosphere, Journal of Meteorology, vol. 7, No. 5, Oct. 1950,2. W.M. Elsawer, Heat Transfer by Infrared Radiation in theAtmosphere, Harvard Meteorological Studies No. 6, BlueHill MeterologicalObservatory, Milton, Mass., 1942,pp.3. E. C. Flowers and R. A.McCormick,WorldRecordLowTemperature, South Pole, September17,1957, MonthlyWeather Review, vol. 85, No. 11, Nov. 1957, p. 383.pp. 313

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Davidn W. Reynolds and Thomas H. Vonder Haar

an objective manner(Conover, 1962, 1963; Leese, 1964; Miller eta/., 1970)for radiation studies, aircraft operations and weatheranalysis. After the launch of meteorological satellitessuch as Nimbus 2 and 3 carrying reliable infraredradiometers, multispectral techniques were developedto match data from different satellite sensors viewingthe same cloud fields (Vonder Haar, 1970; Shenk -ta/.,1976). Beginning with ITOS 1 (1970) simultaneoushigh-resolution visible and infrared data points

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Kuo-Nan Liou

scatterers. Do the authors assume thatscattering of visible radiation by cirrus clouds isisotropic? Since the observed NOAA SR data areutilized to establish the empirical relation, the spectralalbedo referred to in their paper has to be associatedwith the reflected solar radiance in which some dependencies of the emergent zenith and azimuth anglesare implicitly included. In my previous calculations for the transfer of solarradiation in cirrus cloud layers (Liou, 1973), the resultsI presented involved

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Stanley Q. Kidder and Huey-Tzu Wu

in regions ofthe electromagnetic spectrum most often used forobservation. In the visible window (near 0.5 ~tm)both clouds and snow have high albedos; in the 11~tm infrared window both clouds and snow have highemittances. Thus, low clouds and snow, which havesimilar thermometric temperatures, present little contrast in visible or 11 ~m infrared satellite images. Inthe 3.7 ~im window, however, clouds and snow canhave different radiometric properties.Figure 1 shows a daytime 3.7 ~m image recordedby

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Ronald A. Willis and Gary K. Grice

AUGUST 1975 P I C T U R E O F T H E M O N T H 745PICTURE OF THE MONTHA Strong Arctic Front over Northwest Canada and Alaska RONALD A. W~LL~S A~P GARY K. Gl~C~ grational Weather Service, iVOA A, Fairbanks, Alaska 99701 14 March 1975 Infrared imagery from the Very High ResolutionRadiometer (VHRR) on the NOAA-4 satellite (Fig. 1)shows a strong arctic front over northwest Canada andAlaska on

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(beginning with ITOS 1). Routineaccumulation of quantitatively reliable data on reflectedsolar energy should enable us to investigate much morefully the temporal and spatial variations of albedo of theearth-atmosphere system. In addition, the infrared chan-nel of the same operational two-channel radiometer shouldpermit similar routine accumulation of reliable data on theother component of the earth-atmosphere radiationbudget-the outgoing longwave radiation.ACKNOWLEDGMENTSI wish to thank several present

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