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Kieran M. Findlater, Milind Kandlikar, Terre Satterfield, and Simon D. Donner

1. Introduction The conceptual literature on climate change adaptation has long asserted that climate change creates new challenges for farm-level decision-making ( Meinke and Stone 2005 ; Meinke et al. 2009 ; Risbey et al. 1999 ), yet many adaptation studies continue to use weather and climate variability as unqualified proxies for climate change, either explicitly or implicitly, in studying farmers’ responses. This approach implies that farmers will adapt to climate change risks using the

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Emma Ferranti, Lee Chapman, Caroline Lowe, Steve McCulloch, David Jaroszweski, and Andrew Quinn

infrastructure. Given that high temperatures and heat waves such as those experienced in Europe in 2003 are predicted to become increasingly common ( Coumou and Robinson 2013 ), understanding the nature of these heat-related incidents is of clear importance for Network Rail and for the four million passengers who use the railway network on a daily basis ( Network Rail 2016 ). Heat affects different asset types in different ways. For example, temperatures above 30°C are often associated with track

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Peter H. Gleick

://www.worldwater.org/conflict.html ). Water-related conflicts occur in many forms, including disputes over access to water and the control of water systems, the targeting of water infrastructure and systems during conventional conflicts and terrorist actions, and the use of water as a weapon. In recent years, there has been an increase in violence over the role that water plays in development disputes and economic activities. Conflicts of any kind are rarely, if ever, attributable to single causes. As such, any analysis or efforts at

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Christopher A. Fiebrich, Jadwiga R. Ziolkowska, Phillip B. Chilson, and Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little

from topography, land use (e.g., forests, urban structures), and convection. Fig . 3. Depiction of a 3D mesonet observing system including a standard 10-m surface mesonet tower along with a WxUAS capable of sampling the complex kinematic and thermodynamic structure of the ABL. While WxUAS technology is still new for the application in this area, and no known mesonets have yet deployed WxUAS in an operational nature to collect such mesoscale observations, rapid developments are taking place. These

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Scott Greene, Laurence S. Kalkstein, David M. Mills, and Jason Samenow

, the Parallel Climate Model (PCM) was used to complete climate simulations with the results then being downscaled to the appropriate location for each city. The PCM is a global coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) that provides state-of-the-art simulations of the earth’s past, present, and future climate states. Included in the PCM is a series of submodels of the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and land. The

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Wesley Tourangeau, Kate Sherren, Carlisle Kent, and Bertrum H. MacDonald

. 2016 ), such as the Canadian Alternative Land Use Services (ALUS) program for ecosystem service stewardship ( France and Campbell 2015 ). Other initiatives are more top-down, for instance, Canada’s Growing Forward (GF), 1 an investment package, policy framework, and federal–provincial–territorial partnership that aimed to encourage innovation and adaptability, including environmental stewardship, water management, and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions ( Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 2008

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Ashraf Dewan, Md. Faruk Hossain, Md. Masudur Rahman, Yasuke Yamane, and Ronald L. Holle

1. Introduction Where, when, and at what frequency lightning occurs across the globe is steadily becoming better known by the use of a variety of sensors ( Holle and Cooper 2016b ; Nag et al. 2015 ). Lightning is due to upward vertical motions accompanied by microphysical processes at elevations with typical ambient temperatures between −5° and −15°C. The upward motion resulting from vertical instability in the atmosphere can then become strong enough to produce lightning in the relevant

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Jessica Kuonen, Flaxen Conway, and Ted Strub

income ( ODFW 2017 ). In 2012, researchers worked with members of the commercial-fishing fleet from Newport, Oregon, as part of an effort to document and understand how they make strategic decisions using ocean condition forecasts ( Duncan 2014 ). Findings revealed that fishermen used a variety of data sources yet lacked a single trusted source, and that they were not utilizing the most advanced, publicly available regional forecasts due to the way that scientists presented the information ( Duncan

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Robert Shupp, Scott Loveridge, Mark Skidmore, Jungmin Lim, and Cynthia Rogers

and demographic characteristics of communities, and 3) the physical infrastructure—buildings, roads, bridges, and other components of the built environment such as basements in the case of tornadoes ( Paul and Stimers 2014 ). Taking a holistic approach to local government policies concerning land use planning, warning and communication systems, building codes, and community hazard mitigation networks is key for improving safety. Research has examined the effectiveness of local government early

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Preeya Mohan and Eric Strobl

the Caribbean’s main generator of income during the colonial period after the “sugar revolution” ( Pons 2007 ). Furthermore, some authors contend that Caribbean sugar production yielded an exceptional “economic surplus” that contributed to the Industrial Revolution and growth in the metropolitan economies in colonial Europe ( Sheridan 1961 ; Williams 1944 ). The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2 outlines the data sources used, provides descriptive statistics, and

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