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Clifford Watkins and Daniel B. Whitt

scales similar to and smaller than the OSBL depth. Generically, these large-aspect-ratio structures can be generated in the OSBL by extracting energy from the mean profile (e.g., via an instability) and via nonlinear transfers of variance from other scales of variability, or they can propagate into the OSBL from below. Prior work has loosely classified observed large-aspect-ratio structures into a few categories: 1) wind/wave/buoyancy-driven Langmuir circulations that are characterized by

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George Mellor

Mech. , 89 , 609 – 646 , doi: 10.1017/S0022112078002773 . 10.1017/S0022112078002773 Ardhuin , A. , N. Suzuki , J. C. McWilliams , and H. Aiki , 2017 : Comments on “A combined derivation of the integrated and vertically resolved, coupled wave–current equations.” J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 47 , 2377 – 2385 , doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-17-0065.1 . 10.1175/JPO-D-17-0065.1 Leibovich , S. , 1980 : On wave-current interaction theories of Langmuir circulation . J. Fluid Mech. , 99 , 715 – 724

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Graig Sutherland, Louis Marié, Gilles Reverdin, Kai H. Christensen, Göran Broström, and Brian Ward

closely with , with some promising results for high-resolution studies ( Brainerd and Gregg 1995 ; Sutherland et al. 2014a , b ). Equation (4) only accounts for surface forcing due to the wind stress and surface buoyancy flux and does not account for other processes that could affect ε such as breaking waves ( Craig and Banner 1994 ), Langmuir circulations ( McWilliams et al. 1997 ; Belcher et al. 2012 ), shear instabilities ( Woods 1968 ), horizontal processes associated with ocean fronts ( D

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David M. Farmer and Johannes R. Gemmrich

250 Range [m] FIG. 6. Bubble cloud patterns derived from a scanning sonar imageat 1139 using the method of Farmer and Li (1995), showing a twodimensional view of bubble clouds organized by Langmuir circulation. The arrows indicate wind direction and the mean direction ofinstrument drift.hypothesis that A0 events are confined to convergencezones. These observations reveal quite significant temperature fluctuations within breaking waves. While the effect of air-sea temperature

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Eric D. Skyllingstad, W. D. Smyth, J. N. Moum, and H. Wijesekera

the largest and most energetic turbulent eddies and parameterize motions smaller than the model grid spacing. Because LES models resolve the largest turbulent motions, they can provide useful information on mixing processes such as convection or Langmuir circulations, provided that the scale of the process is adequately bracketed by the model grid spacing and the domain size. A key requirement in the use of LES models is that the spatial resolution includes the scales of the energy

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Marvin Diamond

, 1947: Experiments on the stinmla tion of clouds to produce rain. Nature, 189, No. 4041, 489-494.Langmuir, I., 1950: Control of precipitation from cumulus clouds by various seeding techniques. Science, 112, No. 2898, 35-41.MacCready, P., 1964: Quantitative seeding concepts. Unpub lished note on file at Meteorology Research, Inc., Altadena, Calif.Malkus, J. S., and R. H. Simpson, 1964a: Modification experi ments on tropical cumulus clouds. Science, 145, 541-548.-----, and ---, 1964b: Note

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years (193340)These data may provide a little more evidence to thoseseeking long-term periodic fluctuations in weather.Inspection of the outstanding sequences obviously sug-I See Charts I-XV following p. 96 for analyzed climatological data for the month.gests a possible oscillation with a period of the order of 30years. This may be related to the historic Bruckner cycle[SI (35 years), but the substantiation of any such con-nection is beyond the scope of this article.GENERAL CIRCULATION

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William G. Large, Edward G. Patton, and Peter P. Sullivan

) , and Li and Fox-Kemper (2017) . The latter discusses the others in some detail and evaluates schemes for incorporating the effects of Langmuir circulations driven by surface wave–induced Stokes drift in OGCMs. Additional relevant examples here include Brown and Grant (1997) , Smyth et al. (2002) , and Noh et al. (2004) , because they focus on nonlocal transport, including momentum. In particular, Brown and Grant (1997) use LES to evaluate the two-scale mixing formulation of Frech and Mahrt

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David J. Raymond and Marvin Wilkening

. Conversely, if the surface flux is known to benegligible, the integrated value of ~qq is minus the netcondensation rate in the cloud.3. Observations The .observations described in this paper wereconducted over the Langmuir Laboratory for Atmospheric Research. Langmuir Laboratory sits atop theMagdalena Mountains of west-central 'New Mexico.This forested range is aligned north-south, and isabout 20 km long by 10 km wide. It is surroundedby grasslands and low scrub of predominant elevation1800 m on the

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Nicole L. Jones and Stephen G. Monismith

hydrodynamics near the free surface in three ways ( Craig and Banner 1994 ). First, the interaction of the wave Stokes drift with the wind-driven surface shear current can result in Langmuir circulation formation (e.g., Craik and Leibovich 1976 ; Skyllingstad and Denbo 1995 ; Teixeira and Belcher 2002 ). Second, Reynolds stresses can be created when the waves are not perfectly irrotational (e.g., Magnaudet and Thais 1995 ). Third, breaking waves generate TKE that is available to be mixed down into the

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