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Deepti Joshi, Marco Carrera, Stephane Bélair, and Sylvie Leroyer

System ( Bélair et al. 2003a ), in which screen-level observations of air temperature and relative humidity are assimilated. Evaporation over open water surfaces is simply calculated as potential evaporation dependent on the water surface temperature and surface-layer turbulent exchanges. Finally, surface characteristics related to orography, vegetation and soil characteristics, land–sea mask, and surface roughness length fields are produced using a geophysical processor software ( Mailhot et al

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Marc Stieglitz, Agnès Ducharne, Randy Koster, and Max Suarez

that anomalies in Eurasian snow cover lead to an expansion of the Siberian high over northern latitudes and, through a displacement of the Icelandic low, affect the North Atlantic oscillation. In turn, this results in colder surface air temperatures in eastern North America and western Europe as well as wetter conditions in southern Europe and the Mediterranean. Last, at the regional scale, snow heterogeneity within a landscape has been found to influence mesoscale wind patterns ( Johnson et al

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Marcus Breil and Gerd Schädler

stochastically perturbed. Subsequently, VEG3D is coupled to CCLM via OASIS3-MCT and a stochastic ensemble is created by perturbing these sensitive VEG3D parameters in coupled simulations to investigate the impact of the subgrid-scale land–atmosphere interaction on regional climate simulations. The model domain used for the coupled CCLM–VEG3D simulations comprises the entire European continent, the Mediterranean Sea, North Africa, and the eastern part of the North Atlantic ( Fig. 1 ) and is identical to the

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Masamichi Ohba, Shinji Kadokura, Yoshikatsu Yoshida, Daisuke Nohara, and Yasushi Toyoda

the baiu season are relatively large in western Japan during this season. As supplementary rainfall data, we also use the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) dataset ( Xie and Arkin 1997 ). The Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature, version 3 (ERSST.v3; Smith et al. 2008 ), dataset was also used for analysis. Fig . 1. (a) Climatology and (b) standard deviation of daily-mean rainfall in the baiu season obtained from high-resolution precipitation data

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George J. Huffman, David T. Bolvin, Eric J. Nelkin, David B. Wolff, Robert F. Adler, Guojun Gu, Yang Hong, Kenneth P. Bowman, and Erich F. Stocker

data are available for January 1998 to the (delayed) present at http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/data/datapool/TRMM/ , and an interactive analysis and display capability is provided at http://disc2.nascom.nasa.gov/Giovanni/tovas . 5. Comparisons and examples Various studies examining the performance and utility of early versions of the RT product have already appeared. For example, Katsanos et al. (2004) examined daily scale performance against gauge data in the eastern Mediterranean Sea and found

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Dejene Sahlu, Efthymios I. Nikolopoulos, Semu A. Moges, Emmanouil N. Anagnostou, and Dereje Hailu

estimates over Ethiopian river basins . Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. , 15 , 1505 – 1514 , doi: 10.5194/hess-15-1505-2011 . Segele, Z. T. , Lamb P. J. , and Leslie L. M. , 2009 : Large-scale atmospheric circulation and global sea surface temperature associations with Horn of Africa June–September rainfall . Int. J. Climatol. , 29 , 1075 – 1100 , doi: 10.1002/joc.1751 . Serrat-Capdevila, A. , Valdes J. B. , and Stakhiv E. Z. , 2014 : Water management applications for satellite

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Brian Golding, Nigel Roberts, Giovanni Leoncini, Ken Mylne, and Richard Swinbank

. However, the relative intensities over the North Sea and over land vary from member 1, with no rain over the sea, to member 6, with widespread rain over the sea. Comparing Fig. 2b with Fig. 1 , it is evident that a majority of the ensemble members have storms over the high ground that exceed the intensity of any observed storm in that area. On the other hand, the storms forecast in the lowland area around and to the west of Edinburgh have accumulations that are similar to or rather less than those

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Roop Saini, Guiling Wang, and Jeremy S. Pal

1. Introduction Extreme summer climate anomalies in the United States, including droughts and floods, have been the subject of many past studies and are attracting renewed interest because of the widespread drought conditions in the past several years. Numerous studies have found a significant association of precipitation over continental United States with sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the tropical and North Pacific and in the Atlantic during the 1988 summer drought and 1993

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Santosh K. Aryal, Bryson C. Bates, Edward P. Campbell, Yun Li, Mark J. Palmer, and Neil R. Viney

et al. (1999) recommend that analysis be carried out using both approaches so that a comparison can be made. In our case study, we will explore and implement the most suitable of these choices for the at-site extremes distribution. 3. Case study a. Study area The Swan–Avon River basin (118 000 km 2 ) is located in southwest Western Australia ( Fig. 1 ). Most of southwest Western Australia experiences a Mediterranean climate of hot summers with infrequent rainfall and cool-to-mild winters

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Kuk-Hyun Ahn and Scott Steinschneider

early summer rainfall anomalies over the northeastern United States and Canada that can contribute to flooding in the Great Lakes. There is an ongoing debate regarding whether any of the circulation patterns above are forced by underlying sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) or other boundary conditions that would enable effective seasonal forecasts of summer rainfall in the Northeast. Several empirical studies have suggested such forecasts are possible. For instance, Steinschneider and Brown

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