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George J. Huffman, David T. Bolvin, Eric J. Nelkin, David B. Wolff, Robert F. Adler, Guojun Gu, Yang Hong, Kenneth P. Bowman, and Erich F. Stocker

data are available for January 1998 to the (delayed) present at http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/data/datapool/TRMM/ , and an interactive analysis and display capability is provided at http://disc2.nascom.nasa.gov/Giovanni/tovas . 5. Comparisons and examples Various studies examining the performance and utility of early versions of the RT product have already appeared. For example, Katsanos et al. (2004) examined daily scale performance against gauge data in the eastern Mediterranean Sea and found

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Dejene Sahlu, Efthymios I. Nikolopoulos, Semu A. Moges, Emmanouil N. Anagnostou, and Dereje Hailu

estimates over Ethiopian river basins . Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. , 15 , 1505 – 1514 , doi: 10.5194/hess-15-1505-2011 . Segele, Z. T. , Lamb P. J. , and Leslie L. M. , 2009 : Large-scale atmospheric circulation and global sea surface temperature associations with Horn of Africa June–September rainfall . Int. J. Climatol. , 29 , 1075 – 1100 , doi: 10.1002/joc.1751 . Serrat-Capdevila, A. , Valdes J. B. , and Stakhiv E. Z. , 2014 : Water management applications for satellite

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Brian Golding, Nigel Roberts, Giovanni Leoncini, Ken Mylne, and Richard Swinbank

. However, the relative intensities over the North Sea and over land vary from member 1, with no rain over the sea, to member 6, with widespread rain over the sea. Comparing Fig. 2b with Fig. 1 , it is evident that a majority of the ensemble members have storms over the high ground that exceed the intensity of any observed storm in that area. On the other hand, the storms forecast in the lowland area around and to the west of Edinburgh have accumulations that are similar to or rather less than those

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Santosh K. Aryal, Bryson C. Bates, Edward P. Campbell, Yun Li, Mark J. Palmer, and Neil R. Viney

et al. (1999) recommend that analysis be carried out using both approaches so that a comparison can be made. In our case study, we will explore and implement the most suitable of these choices for the at-site extremes distribution. 3. Case study a. Study area The Swan–Avon River basin (118 000 km 2 ) is located in southwest Western Australia ( Fig. 1 ). Most of southwest Western Australia experiences a Mediterranean climate of hot summers with infrequent rainfall and cool-to-mild winters

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Roop Saini, Guiling Wang, and Jeremy S. Pal

1. Introduction Extreme summer climate anomalies in the United States, including droughts and floods, have been the subject of many past studies and are attracting renewed interest because of the widespread drought conditions in the past several years. Numerous studies have found a significant association of precipitation over continental United States with sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the tropical and North Pacific and in the Atlantic during the 1988 summer drought and 1993

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Kuk-Hyun Ahn and Scott Steinschneider

early summer rainfall anomalies over the northeastern United States and Canada that can contribute to flooding in the Great Lakes. There is an ongoing debate regarding whether any of the circulation patterns above are forced by underlying sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) or other boundary conditions that would enable effective seasonal forecasts of summer rainfall in the Northeast. Several empirical studies have suggested such forecasts are possible. For instance, Steinschneider and Brown

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George J. Huffman, Robert F. Adler, Mark M. Morrissey, David T. Bolvin, Scott Curtis, Robert Joyce, Brad McGavock, and Joel Susskind

during the boreal winter. The gradients along the northern coast of Africa reflect the transition from desert to the pattern of boreal wintertime storms that typifies the Mediterranean. Holes occur in individual geo-IR images, most routinely in the Indian Ocean sector, where no geo-IR data were available until June 1998. To compensate, leo-IR estimates from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)–series polar-orbiting satellites are processed to fill in holes as necessary. The leo

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Sujan Pal, Francina Dominguez, María Eugenia Dillon, Javier Alvarez, Carlos Marcelo Garcia, Stephen W. Nesbitt, and David Gochis

, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015MS000510 . 10.1002/2015MS000510 Senatore , A. , L. Furnari , and G. Mendicino , 2020 : Impact of high-resolution sea surface temperature presentation on the forecast of small Mediterranean catchments’ hydrological responses to heavy precipitation . Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. , 24 , 269 – 291 , https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-24-269-2020 . 10.5194/hess-24-269-2020 Seo , D. J. , V. Koren , and N. Cajina , 2003 : Real-time variational assimilation of

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Gilles R. C. Essou, Florent Sabarly, Philippe Lucas-Picher, François Brissette, and Annie Poulin

NCEP from a coupled climate system atmosphere–ocean–land surface with an interactive sea ice component. It covers the period from 1979 to the present and uses a three-dimensional variational data assimilation approach ( Saha et al. 2010 ). CFSR assimilates satellite radiance rather than estimated temperature and humidity values ( Wang et al. 2011 ). Estimates of greenhouse gas concentration changes, aerosols, and solar variations are used as forcings in CFSR; CFSR also assimilates hydrological

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Sonia I. Seneviratne, Randal D. Koster, Zhichang Guo, Paul A. Dirmeyer, Eva Kowalczyk, David Lawrence, Ping Liu, David Mocko, Cheng-Hsuan Lu, Keith W. Oleson, and Diana Verseghy

prescribed sea surface temperature (SST). The SST boundary conditions for the integrations are the observed conditions in 1994, a year not characterized by either El Niño or La Niña conditions. Note then that the impact of interannually varying SSTs on soil moisture memory, which can be particularly strong in the Tropics ( Koster et al. 2000 ), is not analyzed in this study. For the initialization of the ensemble simulations, GLACE participants were provided with various approaches that ensured that the

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