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L. Alados-Arboledas, J. Vida, and J. I. Jiménez

through thesilicon dome, but seems to be due to solar heating ofthe dome (either KRS-5 or silicon) that results in additional energy fluxes over the sensor surface. In this paper we present the results of several experiments designed to evaluate the performance of thesilicon dome pyrgeometer in daytime. Our calculationof the energy budget over the sensor surface indicatesthat about 11-12 W m-2 are added to the pyrgeometermeasurements for each degree of difference betweendome and base temperatures.2

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Kanghui Zhou, Yongguang Zheng, Wansheng Dong, and Tingbo Wang

. Experimental results Classical skill scores, including the POD, FAR, threat score (TS), accuracy, bias, and equitable threat score (ETS), are typically used for evaluating deterministic forecasts; however, they also can be used for evaluating the probabilistic forecast performance by thresholding the probabilistic forecasts and turning them into deterministic forecasts. After different thresholds of probability were tested, we determined that when the probabilistic threshold value was 0.5, we could obtain

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V. Klaus, G. Chérel, P. Goupil, and N. Pénetier

for the radio electric waves. The second one, which is a direct application of the theory developed by Tatarskii (1971) , considers a diffusion process of electromagnetic waves due to refractive index perturbations brought about by the acoustic waves. It was applied for the first time by Clifford and Wang (1977) and expanded, for example, by Lataitis (1992) . This last method may be quite useful for fine-tuning the model because it provides a stochastic approach to evaluate the wrinkling of

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Micheal Hicks, Belay Demoz, Kevin Vermeesch, and Dennis Atkinson

Ceilometer Proof of Concept Project was to show the capabilities of ceilometers beyond detecting sky conditions. This paper utilizes the dataset to evaluate the performance of an aerosol-based ML height detection algorithm, in anticipation of ceilometer backscatter data at AWSs being made available for user consumption in the near future. Hicks et al. (2015) used a consortium of automated aerosol-based detection methods [i.e., hybrid, hybrid-lowest (H-L), 1D Haar wavelet covariance transform (WCT), and

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Dmitri N. Moisseev, Cuong M. Nguyen, and V. Chandrasekar

pulse pair and PTDM can be significantly different. To minimize the difference one can introduce a second precipitation echo into the model. To detect cases where the assumption of a Gaussian-shaped precipitation spectrum fails, one can use a combination of a normalized trace: and the R 2 goodness of fit parameter based on the imaginary part of the autocovariance function (5) ( Nguyen et al. 2008 ): where 〈·〉 denotes a mean value. The goodness of fit parameters are evaluated at the

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Niranjan S. Ghaisas and Cristina L. Archer

provides a threshold value that can be useful while evaluating different layouts (see section 5 ). A comparison between two layouts can be considered meaningful only if the predicted powers differ by more than 4%. b. Horns Rev wind farm The performance of the geometry-based models is next assessed for a layout other than that of the Lillgrund wind farm. The Horns Rev wind farm, located in the North Sea off the coast of Denmark, comprises 80 turbines arranged in an almost rectangular layout of 10

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Xin Zhang, Xiang-Yu Huang, Jianyu Liu, Jonathan Poterjoy, Yonghui Weng, Fuqing Zhang, and Hongli Wang

this paper. b. Computational performance and scientific impact A series of experiments are carried out to evaluate the computational performance and scientific impact of applying multi-incremental 4D-Var for model initialization. Two configurations with three inner loops are tested. One uses the full-resolution configuration in which the outer and inner loops use the same resolution (15, 15, and 15 km), and the other uses the multi-incremental configuration with a 15-km outer loop and three inner

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Florian Le Guillou, Sammy Metref, Emmanuel Cosme, Clément Ubelmann, Maxime Ballarotta, Julien Le Sommer, and Jacques Verron

height (SSH) from realistic altimetric observations in the context of the future SWOT mission. The proposed mapping technique uses a 1.5-layer QG model forced by observations of SSH. The model is gradually nudged toward the observations while running forward and backward within a temporal window in an iterative process so as to overcome the problem of time distribution of the observations. The performance of this mapping technique, dubbed the BFN-QG, has been evaluated and compared with the standard

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W. Erick Rogers and David W. C. Wang

. 10.1080/10236730290026540 Alves, J. H. G. M. , and Banner M. L. , 2003 : Performance of a saturation-based dissipation-rate source term in modeling the fetch-limited evolution of wind waves. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 33 , 1274 – 1298 . 10.1175/1520-0485(2003)033<1274:POASDS>2.0.CO;2 Anctil, F. , Donelan M. A. , Forristall G. Z. , Steele K. E. , and Ouellet Y. , 1993 : Deep-water field evaluation of the NDBC-SWADE 3-m discus directional buoy. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 10 , 97

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Maxime Ballarotta, Clément Ubelmann, Marine Rogé, Florent Fournier, Yannice Faugère, Gérald Dibarboure, Rosemary Morrow, and Nicolat Picot

specifically for this study, keeping one altimeter mission (here CryoSat-2 ) out to allow an independent assessment of the mapping performance. These maps are constructed from a LOI method ( Bretherton et al. 1976 ; Traon et al. 1998 ) based on the a priori statistical knowledge of the SSH fields (e.g., covariance model, correlation length scale, SSH variance, noise level). The LOI approach used for the DUACS-DT2018 processing is extensively described in section 2.2.6 of Pujol et al. (2016) as well as

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