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Michiko Otsuka, Hiromu Seko, Masahiro Hayashi, and Ko Koizumi

cloud-affected IR radiances operationally, though the assimilation of high-frequency GEO radiances has the potential to benefit short-range forecasts ( Geer et al. 2018 ), as has been demonstrated recently in mesoscale systems utilizing Himawari-8 data ( Honda et al. 2018b ; Minamide and Zhang 2018 ; Okamoto et al. 2019 ). Although the direct assimilation of VIS reflectances operationally seems to take extra time, fast radiative transfer models are under development. Scheck et al. (2018

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Renzo Bechini and V. Chandrasekar

1. Introduction The description of the atmospheric state evolution is inherently a three-dimensional problem involving several variables (e.g., for warm rain process: temperature, humidity, pressure, winds, water vapor, cloud water, rainwater). However, nowcasting by radar is in general intended as the two-dimensional forecast of rainwater q r (g kg −1 ) in the near-surface layer. One possible option for precipitation and wind nowcasting is through the use of numerical weather prediction (NWP

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Huizhen Yu, Hongli Wang, Zhiyong Meng, Mu Mu, Xiang-Yu Huang, and Xin Zhang

to add extra observations for initialization in numerical weather prediction, sensitivity analysis can also be used to identify precursors of a weather system or to examine the possible interaction between different synoptic systems ( Wu et al. 2007 , 2009a ), which could be quite useful for identifying key contributors to a weather event, especially from an operational forecasting point of view. The results of Wu et al. (2009b) showed that adjoint-based methods could capture the signal of the

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Timothy C. Y. Chui, David Siuta, Gregory West, Henryk Modzelewski, Roland Schigas, and Roland Stull

, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD003296 . Fink , A. H. , and Coauthors , 2011 : Operational meteorology in West Africa: Observational networks, weather analysis and forecasting . Atmos. Sci. Lett. , 12 , 135 – 141 , https://doi.org/10.1002/asl.324 . 10.1002/asl.324 Graham , R. , 2014 : DFID-Met Office Climate Science Research Partnership (CSRP): CSRP phase 1—Final report. Met Office Tech. Rep., 105 pp., https://www.metoffice.gov.uk/binaries/content/assets/mohippo/pdf/5/csrp1_report

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Chih-Chiang Wei

predict the total rainfall during a typhoon when the storm is still several days away from Taiwan. The concept used in this paper is inspired by the previous work of Wei (2014) , who predicted the hourly rainfall during a typhoon invasion in Taiwan. Wei (2014) used meteorological and radar reflectivity data to simulate the operational forecasting of real-time hourly rainfall for developing a rainfall forecasting model for typhoons. When a typhoon makes landfall over Taiwan, no extra energy is added

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Peter Rogowski, Mark Otero, Joel Hazard, Thomas Muschamp, Scott Katz, and Eric Terrill

-based remote sensing products. Fig . 4. Time series of visibility (orange) and wind speed (gray) observations from an XMET deployed at the Al Asad Air Base in July 2008. The operational successes of the original XMET systems led to a request from the Department of Defense (DoD) for 11 additional units to create a near-real-time MET network in Afghanistan operation areas during OEF. The utilization of an array of systems provided weather forecasters with in situ observations at discrete locations of

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S. Mark Leidner, Bachir Annane, Brian McNoldy, Ross Hoffman, and Robert Atlas

wind fields Two sources for 10-m background surface vector winds were used for this study: 1) 6-h forecasts from a Global Forecast System (GFS) global control OSSE ( Casey et al. 2016 ) that used the 2005 operational T382 3D-Hybrid DA system (approximately 35-km resolution), and 2) 6-h forecasts from an HWRF control OSSE ( McNoldy et al. 2017 ; ~9-km regional resolution). The GFS model is described by NWS (2014) and the GFS DA system by NOAA (2015) . Because this study uses simulated

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Christopher W. Fairall and Richard E. Carbone

VOL. 11, NO.I JOURNAL OF ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC TECHNOLOGY FEBRUARY 1994 EDITORIALTropospheric Profiling--Matching Research and Operational Needs with Emerging Technologies Measurements of the fundamental atmospheric variables are a key in both forecastingand successful research investigation. In the interest of promoting better interactionsamong technologists, operationalists, and researchers, the Second

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Yi Luo, Xudong Liang, Gang Wang, and Zheng Cao

applied to some nowcasting systems, such as the Generating Advanced Nowcasts for Deployment in Operational Land surface Flood Forecasts (GANDOLF; Bowler et al. 2004 ) and Short-Range Warning of Intense Rainstorms in Localized Systems (SWIRLS; Cheung and Yeung 2012 ). Another method for estimating the motion of thunderstorm is the storm cell centroid identification and tracking technique ( Wilk and Gray 1970 ; Zittel 1976 ; Brady et al. 1978 ; Crane 1979 ; Rosenfeld 1987 ). This method was

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Guoqing Ge, Jidong Gao, and Ming Xue

1. Introduction There are many challenges in forecasting convective storms. One of them is how to produce a dynamic consistent initial condition for storm-scale numerical weather prediction (NWP) (see the appendix for acronym expansions and variable definitions) models. Currently, the Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) network is the only source of routine observations in the United States that can resolve storm-scale features at high enough spatial and temporal resolutions

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