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Adrian M. Tompkins, Douglas J. Parker, Sylvester Danour, Leonard Amekudzi, Caroline L. Bain, Abdul Dominguez, Michael W. Douglas, Andreas H. Fink, David I. F. Grimes, Matthew Hobby, Peter Knippertz, Peter J. Lamb, Kathryn J. Nicklin, and Charles Yorke

schools were designed to help launch the undergraduate meteorology program of KNUST and benefited from the significant increase in research activity regarding West African weather and climate that has arisen from the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) program. Both schools lasted two weeks and included a broad program of lectures, hands-on classes in regional forecasting and climate applications modeling, and a variety of field measurement activities with associated student projects

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Daniel B. Wright, Constantine Samaras, and Tania Lopez-Cantu

release of these statistics, titled Technical Paper 40, was published by the U.S. Weather Bureau in 1961 ( Hershfield 1961 ). Its successor, Atlas 14, has been rolled out on a regional basis by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) since 2004, and is now nearly complete ( Perica et al. 2018 ). Atlas 14 analyzes historical data to provide rainfall amounts for storms up to the 1,000-yr recurrence interval (i.e., a 0.1% annual likelihood or the 1,000-yr storm), along with confidence

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Daniel Rosenfeld, William L. Woodley, Alexander Khain, William R. Cotton, Gustavo Carrió, Isaac Ginis, and Joseph H. Golden

storms. Here we report the main results of this research. MODEL SIMULATIONS OF AEROSOL EFFECTS. Simulations of impacts of pollution and dust aerosols. Building on the earlier dust simulations of H. Zhang et al. (2007 , 2009) , Carrió and Cotton (2011) performed idealized simulations of the direct insertion of CCN in the outer rainband region of a TC. The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS; Cotton et al. 2003 ) was used in those idealized simulations that included a two

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Jianguo Tan, Limin Yang, C. S. B. Grimmond, Jianping Shi, Wen Gu, Yuanyong Chang, Ping Hu, Juan Sun, Xiangyu Ao, and Zhihui Han

these areas, the effects of which are often exacerbated by the decreased resilience and increased vulnerability associated with dense urban populations and infrastructure, intensive economic activities and climate change ( Tang 2008 ). Observations of atmospheric conditions and processes in urban areas are fundamental to understanding the interactions between the underlying surface and the weather/climate and improving the performance of urban weather, air quality, and climate models. Such

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Thomas Spengler, Ian A. Renfrew, Annick Terpstra, Michael Tjernström, James Screen, Ian M. Brooks, Andrew Carleton, Dmitry Chechin, Linling Chen, James Doyle, Igor Esau, Paul J. Hezel, Thomas Jung, Tsubasa Kohyama, Christof Lüpkes, Kelly E. McCusker, Tiina Nygård, Denis Sergeev, Matthew D. Shupe, Harald Sodemann, and Timo Vihma

parameterization for drag as a function of ice fraction, thickness, and stability, which performs well, though further work is required to constrain surface roughness. Francois Massonnet showed that increasing the horizontal resolution of an atmospheric model improves the forecast skill for low-level temperatures, while sea ice predictive skill increases with higher ocean resolution. Andrew Roberts highlighted that high-resolution fully coupled regional models can enable evaluation of coupled dynamics using

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Jonathan J. Gourley, Humberto Vergara, Ami Arthur, Robert A. Clark III, Dennis Staley, John Fulton, Laura Hempel, David C. Goodrich, Katherine Rowden, and Peter R. Robichaud

effects of wildfire on a community can be disastrous, as was evident with the Camp Fire in 2018 that burned over 95% of the structures in Paradise and Concow, California, and resulted in 85 casualties [one person is still missing to date (15 March 2020)]. But, the secondary effects of wildfire can also have substantial consequences. This was the case in 2017 when the Thomas Fire raged in Santa Barbara and Ventura Counties in Southern California, eventually burning 1,141 km 2 of landscape. Before the

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Maude Dinan, Emile Elias, Nicholas P. Webb, Greg Zwicke, Timothy S. Dye, Skye Aney, Michael Brady, Joel R. Brown, Robert R. Dobos, Dave DuBois, Brandon L. Edwards, Sierra Heimel, Nicholas Luke, Caitlin M. Rottler, and Caitriana Steele

workshop, outlining a regional cross section of needs and priorities to be explored further. General needs For research, policy, and land management to fulfill the needs outlined in this roadmap successfully, several broad requisites should be considered. Attention to these general needs ultimately calls for intensified communication and collaboration across science, policy, and the general public. Data accessibility. A significant barrier to research and practice includes the lack of accessibility to

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Kenneth E. Kunkel, Thomas R. Karl, Harold Brooks, James Kossin, Jay H. Lawrimore, Derek Arndt, Lance Bosart, David Changnon, Susan L. Cutter, Nolan Doesken, Kerry Emanuel, Pavel Ya. Groisman, Richard W. Katz, Thomas Knutson, James O'Brien, Christopher J. Paciorek, Thomas C. Peterson, Kelly Redmond, David Robinson, Jeff Trapp, Russell Vose, Scott Weaver, Michael Wehner, Klaus Wolter, and Donald Wuebbles

why. This paper examines a specific subset of extreme weather and climate types affecting the United States. For our purposes, storm-related extremes here refer to those short-duration events that have levels/types of wind and/or precipitation at local to regional scales that are uncommon for a particular place and time of year ( Peterson et al. 2008 ). The categories of storms described herein were chosen because they often cause property damage and loss of life; the identification of an extreme

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Thomas A. Schroeder, Md Rashed Chowdhury, Mark A. Lander, Charles Chip Guard, Charlene Felkley, and Duncan Gifford

al. 2006 ). In addition, substantial progress had been made in understanding regional behaviors and impacts of the ENSO cycle, which is the dominant source of climate variability for the region (also see McPhaden et al. 2006 , and references therein). Because of this, PEAC's initial focus was to i) improve the historical rainfall datasets for the main islands and develop datasets for the “outer” islands in the tropical Pacific basin; ii) develop the rainfall and tropical cyclone relationships

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Ralph Alvin Petersen

Low-cost automated aircraft wind and temperature observations now constitute the third most important dataset for short-range global NWP and, in areas of ample reports, have become the single most important dataset for use in regional NWP applications. Data obtained from aircraft have played important roles in meteorological research and operations for over a century ( Wendisch and Brenguier 2013 ). Although manual meteorological observations have been collected from commercial aircraft since

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