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Tomoki Ushiyama, Takahiro Sayama, Yuya Tatebe, Susumu Fujioka, and Kazuhiko Fukami

1. Introduction During the summer of 2010, Pakistan experienced the worst flood disaster in history. The westward shift of monsoonal rainfall caused extraordinarily severe large-scale floods, resulting in a devastating disaster over a wide area of the country. The series of floods killed more than 1700 people and affected 18 million people along the Indus River ( United Nations 2010 ). The flooding first struck the northwestern part of Pakistan, particularly the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

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Ju-Mee Ryoo, Sen Chiao, J. Ryan Spackman, Laura T. Iraci, F. Martin Ralph, Andrew Martin, Randall M. Dole, Josette E. Marrero, Emma L. Yates, T. Paul Bui, Jonathan M. Dean-Day, and Cecilia S. Chang

occur in conjunction with landfalling atmospheric rivers (ARs), which are characterized by elongated, deep, and narrow corridors of concentrated water vapor transport that form in the warm sector of extratropical cyclones ( Zhu and Newell 1994 , 1998 ; Ralph et al. 2004 , 2005a , 2006 ; Neiman et al. 2008 ; Dettinger 2011 ; Dettinger et al. 2011 ; Guan et al. 2013 ; Ryoo et al. 2015 ). As ARs impinge upon the mountainous terrain along the west coast, heavy precipitation can be generated by

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E. Morrow, J. X. Mitrovica, and G. Fotopoulos

1. Introduction The Mackenzie River basin (MRB) is the second largest basin in North America, with a drainage area of about 1.8 × 10 6 km 2 , and is the largest basin on the continent to drain freshwater into the Arctic Ocean ( Woo and Thorne 2003 ). Freshwater discharge affects the salinity of the Arctic Ocean ( Macdonald et al. 1999 ) and in turn the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation ( Broecker 1997 ). Partly because of this connection to the global climate system, the overall

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Wayne R. Rouse, Andrea K. Eaton, Richard M. Petrone, L. Dale Boudreau, Philip Marsh, and Timothy J. Griffis

1. Introduction The landscape of the lower Mackenzie River basin grades from open subarctic forest into open tundra that stretches to the coast of the Beaufort Sea. This tundra is undulating, consisting of sphagnum-dominated tussock tundra with a few shallow lakes in the lowlands, and shrub birch and sedge-lichen heath in the uplands. This study exploits a continuous two water year dataset to document the seasonality in the surface energy balance of this tundra region and investigate the

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Evan J. Coopersmith, Michael H. Cosh, Walt A. Petersen, John Prueger, and James J. Niemeier

soil. For the study region, soil textures fall between 23% and 28% clay, with most stations presenting a value of 27%. On the left, an image of a representative soil moisture station is included. This paper focuses its analysis on a Long-Term Agroecosystem Research site in the South Fork Iowa River in central Iowa. The ARS monitors this test watershed with 15 in situ soil moisture and precipitation stations, each of which provides hourly estimates of soil moisture profiles and precipitation from

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Chengzu Bai, Mei Hong, Dong Wang, Ren Zhang, and Longxia Qian

–runoff forecasting is a crucial precondition for hydrometeorological research and operational flood forecasting, especially in some undermonitored river basins. Tremendous efforts have been made over the last few decades to recover missing data and to improve hydrological predictions. Most of the missing data recovery methods, such as kriging interpolation, polynomial interpolation, optimal interpolation, Kalman filtering, the successive corrections method, fractal interpolation, and phase space reconstruction

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Zhihua He, Long Yang, Fuqiang Tian, Guangheng Ni, Aizhong Hou, and Hui Lu

. Specific questions that will be examined include the following: Does the IMERG product produce a lower systematic bias value than the 3B42V7 product over mountainous basins? How does the performance of the IMERG product depend on rainfall intensity? What is the potential of the IMERG product in hydrological application over mountainous basins? Our study region is the upper Mekong River basin (UMRB), which is on the southwestern border of mainland China. A high-density network of rain gauges provides an

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Zachary M. Seligman, Joel T. Harper, and Marco P. Maneta

, 257 – 269 , doi:10.3137/ao.440304 . Ohmura, A. , 2001 : Physical basis for the temperature-based melt-index method . J. Appl. Meteor. , 40 , 753 – 761 , doi:10.1175/1520-0450(2001)040<0753:PBFTTB>2.0.CO;2 . Paterson, W. S. B. , 1994 : The Physics of Glaciers. Pergamon, 480 pp. Rice, R. , Bales R. C. , Painter T. H. , and Dozier J. , 2011 : Snow water equivalent along elevation gradients in the Merced and Tuolumne River basins of the Sierra Nevada . Water Resour. Res. , 47

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H. Lauri, T. A. Räsänen, and M. Kummu

1. Introduction Hydrological modeling of a large river basin requires a substantial amount of meteorological data to drive the model. In some regions available surface observations may be sparse, and often the quality of the historical measurement data can also be questioned. Many large river basins in the “Monsoon Asia” region (South, Southeast, and East Asia), such as the Ganges–Brahmaputra, Irrawaddy, Salween, and Mekong (excluding the Thai part of the basin), suffer from rather poor data

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Michel Wortmann, Tobias Bolch, Christoph Menz, Jiang Tong, and Valentina Krysanova

1. Introduction Many arid and desert regions in Asia are highly dependent on water resources generated in the mountainous headwaters of High Mountain Asia (High Asia), such as the Indus, Syr Darya, Amu Darja, and the Tarim River ( Kaser et al. 2010 ; Pritchard 2017 ; Bolch 2017 ). The latter has China’s largest endoheric river basin encircling the Taklamakan Desert. Approximately 10 million people depend on a vast irrigation agriculture along the rivers that provides subsistence farming and

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