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Ju-Mee Ryoo, Sen Chiao, J. Ryan Spackman, Laura T. Iraci, F. Martin Ralph, Andrew Martin, Randall M. Dole, Josette E. Marrero, Emma L. Yates, T. Paul Bui, Jonathan M. Dean-Day, and Cecilia S. Chang

occur in conjunction with landfalling atmospheric rivers (ARs), which are characterized by elongated, deep, and narrow corridors of concentrated water vapor transport that form in the warm sector of extratropical cyclones ( Zhu and Newell 1994 , 1998 ; Ralph et al. 2004 , 2005a , 2006 ; Neiman et al. 2008 ; Dettinger 2011 ; Dettinger et al. 2011 ; Guan et al. 2013 ; Ryoo et al. 2015 ). As ARs impinge upon the mountainous terrain along the west coast, heavy precipitation can be generated by

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Chengzu Bai, Mei Hong, Dong Wang, Ren Zhang, and Longxia Qian

–runoff forecasting is a crucial precondition for hydrometeorological research and operational flood forecasting, especially in some undermonitored river basins. Tremendous efforts have been made over the last few decades to recover missing data and to improve hydrological predictions. Most of the missing data recovery methods, such as kriging interpolation, polynomial interpolation, optimal interpolation, Kalman filtering, the successive corrections method, fractal interpolation, and phase space reconstruction

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Wayne R. Rouse, Andrea K. Eaton, Richard M. Petrone, L. Dale Boudreau, Philip Marsh, and Timothy J. Griffis

1. Introduction The landscape of the lower Mackenzie River basin grades from open subarctic forest into open tundra that stretches to the coast of the Beaufort Sea. This tundra is undulating, consisting of sphagnum-dominated tussock tundra with a few shallow lakes in the lowlands, and shrub birch and sedge-lichen heath in the uplands. This study exploits a continuous two water year dataset to document the seasonality in the surface energy balance of this tundra region and investigate the

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Evan J. Coopersmith, Michael H. Cosh, Walt A. Petersen, John Prueger, and James J. Niemeier

soil. For the study region, soil textures fall between 23% and 28% clay, with most stations presenting a value of 27%. On the left, an image of a representative soil moisture station is included. This paper focuses its analysis on a Long-Term Agroecosystem Research site in the South Fork Iowa River in central Iowa. The ARS monitors this test watershed with 15 in situ soil moisture and precipitation stations, each of which provides hourly estimates of soil moisture profiles and precipitation from

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Zhihua He, Long Yang, Fuqiang Tian, Guangheng Ni, Aizhong Hou, and Hui Lu

. Specific questions that will be examined include the following: Does the IMERG product produce a lower systematic bias value than the 3B42V7 product over mountainous basins? How does the performance of the IMERG product depend on rainfall intensity? What is the potential of the IMERG product in hydrological application over mountainous basins? Our study region is the upper Mekong River basin (UMRB), which is on the southwestern border of mainland China. A high-density network of rain gauges provides an

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Zachary M. Seligman, Joel T. Harper, and Marco P. Maneta

, 257 – 269 , doi:10.3137/ao.440304 . Ohmura, A. , 2001 : Physical basis for the temperature-based melt-index method . J. Appl. Meteor. , 40 , 753 – 761 , doi:10.1175/1520-0450(2001)040<0753:PBFTTB>2.0.CO;2 . Paterson, W. S. B. , 1994 : The Physics of Glaciers. Pergamon, 480 pp. Rice, R. , Bales R. C. , Painter T. H. , and Dozier J. , 2011 : Snow water equivalent along elevation gradients in the Merced and Tuolumne River basins of the Sierra Nevada . Water Resour. Res. , 47

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H. Lauri, T. A. Räsänen, and M. Kummu

1. Introduction Hydrological modeling of a large river basin requires a substantial amount of meteorological data to drive the model. In some regions available surface observations may be sparse, and often the quality of the historical measurement data can also be questioned. Many large river basins in the “Monsoon Asia” region (South, Southeast, and East Asia), such as the Ganges–Brahmaputra, Irrawaddy, Salween, and Mekong (excluding the Thai part of the basin), suffer from rather poor data

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Michel Wortmann, Tobias Bolch, Christoph Menz, Jiang Tong, and Valentina Krysanova

1. Introduction Many arid and desert regions in Asia are highly dependent on water resources generated in the mountainous headwaters of High Mountain Asia (High Asia), such as the Indus, Syr Darya, Amu Darja, and the Tarim River ( Kaser et al. 2010 ; Pritchard 2017 ; Bolch 2017 ). The latter has China’s largest endoheric river basin encircling the Taklamakan Desert. Approximately 10 million people depend on a vast irrigation agriculture along the rivers that provides subsistence farming and

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Thomas Bosshard, Sven Kotlarski, Massimiliano Zappa, and Christoph Schär

the topography and hydrological characteristics of the catchment considered. In snowmelt-dominated basins, for instance, the expected temperature increase will impact snow accumulation and melt dynamics and can cause important changes of the annual discharge regime ( Barnett et al. 2005 ). This study assesses the hydrological changes in the Rhine basin, induced by projected twenty-first-century climate changes. The Rhine basin is one of the largest river systems in central Europe. It drains into

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Xiangbo Feng, Wei Zhang, Zhenglei Zhu, Amulya Chevuturi, and Wenlong Chen

Abstract

Understanding water level (WL) fluctuations in river deltas is of importance for managing water resources and minimizing the impacts of floods and droughts. Here, we demonstrate the competing effects of atmospheric and oceanic forcing on multi-timescale variability and changes in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) WLs in southern China, using 52 years (1961–2012) of in-situ observations at 13 hydrological stations. PRD WL presents significant seasonal to decadal variations, with large amplitudes upstream related to strong variability of southern China rainfall, and with relatively small amplitudes at the coastal stations determined by sea level (SL) fluctuations of the northern South China Sea. We find that the strengths of atmospheric and oceanic forcing in PRD are not mutually independent, leading to a distinct contrast of WL–forcing relationships at upstream and coastal stations. In the transition zone, because of counteracts of atmospheric and oceanic forcing, no robust relationships are identified between WL and either of the forcing. We further show that in the drought season of the warm ENSO and PDO epochs, the effect of atmospheric (oceanic) forcing on PRD WL is largely enhanced (weakened), due to increased southern China rainfall and negative SL anomalies. Over the observation period, WL significantly decreased at upstream stations, by up to 28–42 mm/year for flood season, contrasting with the upward trends of <4.3 mm/year at coastal stations across all seasons. Southern China rainfall explains little of the observed WL trends, whilst SL rise is mostly responsible for the WL trends at coastal stations.

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