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Shota Katsura, Eitarou Oka, Bo Qiu, and Niklas Schneider

1. Introduction Salinity, along with temperature, is one of the most fundamental parameters in physical oceanography. In open oceans, its variations are mostly controlled by processes near the sea surface, particularly the surface freshwater flux, and its long-term changes reflect those in climate and the hydrological cycle. At the same time, salinity also determines water density and controls the ocean circulation, particularly at high latitudes where water temperature is low. Knowledge of

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Michael M. Whitney, David S. Ullman, and Daniel L. Codiga

1. Introduction Studying the spatial patterns, time variability, and forcing factors for subtidal exchange is central to understanding estuaries. Along- and across-estuary subtidal exchange influences physical water properties (e.g., temperature and salinity), biochemical properties (e.g., dissolved oxygen), cycling of nutrients, and contaminant distribution. The nature of subtidal exchange varies among estuaries. This study investigates subtidal exchange near the mouth of Long Island Sound

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Shota Katsura, Eitarou Oka, and Kanako Sato

1. Introduction The barrier layer (BL) is defined as the layer between bases of the mixed layer and the isothermal layer, when the former is shallower than the latter due to salinity stratification ( Lukas and Lindstrom 1991 ). The BL is believed to work as a barrier against the heat and kinetic energy input into the ocean interior. When BLs are formed, kinetic energy transported from the atmosphere to ocean by wind is trapped into the shallower mixed layer and accelerates flow only in the

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Gaël Forget

mapping involving weighted averages of the data in both time and space. Despite their evident utility, a limitation of these climatologies is that the mapped temperatures, salinities, and/or derived flows do not follow from known equations of motion or kinematics. An early attempt to produce time-averaged fields satisfying known equations was given by Wunsch (1994) , but the methodology was not practical on a global scale. Another difficulty with climatologies is the extreme inhomogeneity in both

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Anders Stigebrandt

OCTOBER 1981 ANDERS STIGEBRANDT 1407A Model for the Thickness and Salinity of the Upper Layer in the Arctic Ocean and the Relationship between the Ice Thickness and Some External Parameters ANDERS STIGEBRANDTDepartment of Oceanography, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden(Manuscript received 25 February 1981, in final form 16 June 1981)ABSTRACT This paper presents a

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A. S. Bennett

Comments on "Salinity Determination from Use of CTD Sensors"A. S. BennettAtlantic Oceanographic Laboratory, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada22 October 1974In a recent paper Knowles (1974) makes a plea for (gauge). However, instruments for measuring in situan internationally agreed standard expression for conductivity are invariably calibrated with sea waterC(35,/,0), the electrical conductivity of sea water of usually directly or indirectly with "Copenhagen Water"salinity S=35

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Jérôme Vialard and Pascale Delecluse

first glance, salinity plays a very little role in these coupled interactions. However, it has been suggested that the amount of oceanic heat directly available for the atmosphere in the upper layer of the warm pool can be dependent on the haline stratification. This is due to the so-called “barrier layer” phenomenon (hereafter referenced as BL; BLT will stand for barrier-layer thickness) ( Lukas and Lindström 1991 ). A BL is present when the isohaline layer is shallower than the isothermal layer

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Philip B. Duffy, Ken Caldeira, Jerry Selvaggi, and Martin I. Hoffert

( Semtner and Chervin 1988 ; Semtner 1995 ), the ability to run truly eddy-resolving simulations for thousands of simulated years is not anticipated in the near future. Hence, for at least the near future, ocean climate simulations will be run at relatively coarse resolution, and good parameterizations of subgrid-scale motions will be needed. In this paper we examine the effects of two such parameterizations (described below) on simulated distributions of natural 14 C, temperature, and salinity in a

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Takuya Nakanowatari, Humio Mitsudera, Tatsuo Motoi, Ichiro Ishikawa, Kay I. Ohshima, and Masaaki Wakatsuchi

1. Introduction North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) occupies the subtropical gyre region of the North Pacific and has well-defined low salinity at a depth range of 300–800 m ( Sverdrup et al. 1942 ) and a distinct salinity minimum centered in the narrow density range of σ θ = 26.7–26.9 ( Reid 1965 ). Ventilation areas for the NPIW have been identified in subpolar regions, mainly in the Sea of Okhotsk ( Yasuda 1997 ) and the Gulf of Alaska ( Van Scoy et al. 1991 ; You et al. 2000

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Fred C. Newman

MARCrX1976 FRED C. NEWMAN 157Temperature Steps in Lake Kivu: A Bottom Heated Saline Lake FRED C. NEW~N~Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139(Manuscript received 5 July 1974, in revised form 10 October 1975)ABSTRACT Vertical profiles of temperature microstructure in Lake Kivu were obtained with "mini

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