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Svenya Chripko, Rym Msadek, Emilia Sanchez-Gomez, Laurent Terray, Laurent Bessières, and Marie-Pierre Moine

1. Introduction Over the last three decades, surface temperatures in the Arctic region have been increasing twice as fast as global mean temperature ( Bindoff et al. 2013 ). This phenomenon is called Arctic amplification and is strongest in winter ( Bintanja and van der Linden 2013 ). One major consequence of this effect is the decline of Arctic sea ice that has been observed since the beginning of satellite measurements ( Serreze et al. 2009 ; Screen and Simmonds 2010a ). Arctic sea ice

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Svetlana A. Sorokina, Camille Li, Justin J. Wettstein, and Nils Gunnar Kvamstø

1. Introduction Arctic sea ice has decreased in all seasons during recent decades. The largest declines in areal extent have occurred during summer and early autumn (up to 10% decade −1 ; Serreze et al. 2007 ), but the thicker multiyear ice cover is shrinking rapidly in winter as well ( Comiso 2012 ). Wintertime Arctic sea ice area declines are concentrated in the Barents Sea ( Serreze et al. 2009 ; Screen and Simmonds 2010a ; Parkinson and Cavalieri 2012 ). The diminishing Arctic sea ice

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Thomas W. Collow, Wanqiu Wang, and Arun Kumar

1. Introduction Declining Arctic sea ice and its impacts on midlatitude weather and climate has been a major topic of scientific debate in recent years. Sea ice loss leads to additional Arctic warming through the ice–ocean albedo feedback ( Kumar et al. 2010 ; Screen and Simmonds 2010 ). Because open water has a lower albedo than sea ice, a region with open water absorbs more solar radiation than ice, thus increasing the temperature further than if the same region were covered by ice. LaJoie

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Yunfeng Cao, Shunlin Liang, Xiaona Chen, and Tao He

1. Introduction Sea surface albedo in the Arctic Ocean has declined considerably over the past decades ( Comiso and Hall 2014 ; Riihelä et al. 2013a ) because of retreating sea ice coverage ( Comiso et al. 2008 ; Kerr 2009 ; Parkinson and Cavalieri 2012 ), earlier melt onset ( Markus et al. 2009 ; Stroeve et al. 2014 ), and decreasing ice thickness ( Kwok and Rothrock 2009 ; Maslanik et al. 2007 ), which have forced the Arctic Ocean to absorb increasing amounts of solar radiation

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H. J. Lee, M. O. Kwon, S.-W. Yeh, Y.-O. Kwon, W. Park, J.-H. Park, Y. H. Kim, and M. A. Alexander

1. Introduction One of the striking features of recent climate change is a loss of multiyear sea ice in the Arctic, which has been associated with global warming (e.g., Serreze et al. 2007 ; Comiso et al. 2008 ; Stroeve et al. 2012 ). Warmer air temperatures caused by increasing greenhouse gas concentrations can accelerate the summer sea ice loss through an ice-albedo feedback as the sea ice gets thinner ( Stroeve et al. 2012 ; Vihma 2014 ). It has been hypothesized that the sea ice decline

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Salil Mahajan, R. Saravanan, and Ping Chang

Bitz 2005 ; Cheng et al. 2007 ; Dahl et al. 2005 ; Dong and Sutton 2002 ; Vellinga and Wood 2002 ; Zhang and Delworth 2005 ). While a weaker AMOC implies a weaker poleward ocean heat transport, the atmosphere, which is a more potent transporter of heat, has been proposed to be the stronger teleconnection medium for the global impacts of AMOC slowdown ( Dong and Sutton 2002 ; Seager et al. 2002 ). Further, sea ice formation in the North Atlantic initiated by a weaker AMOC and amplified by ice

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Graham R. Simpkins, Laura M. Ciasto, David. W. J. Thompson, and Matthew H. England

1. Introduction Sea ice has the potential to modify Earth’s climate system through a variety of factors. For example, it can perturb the radiation budget through the ice–albedo feedback, modify deep-water production and thus the global overturning circulation, and control air–sea exchanges of heat, moisture, and carbon. In addition to the physical impacts, changes in sea ice also have significant ecological implications. As such, understanding the mechanisms that govern sea ice variability is

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Justin J. Wettstein and Clara Deser

1. Introduction September Arctic sea ice extent has decreased by slightly more than 2.5 × 10 6 km 2 (~10% decade −1 ) since 1979, when consistent satellite observations were initiated ( Fetterer et al. 2002 , with updates; Serreze et al. 2007 ; Comiso et al. 2008 ; Deser and Teng 2008 ). Comprehensive Arctic sea ice thickness measurements are more difficult to retrieve, but available measurements ( Rothrock et al. 1999 ) and surrogate measures such as the fraction of multiyear ice ( Nghiem

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Lantao Sun, Clara Deser, and Robert A. Tomas

1. Introduction Arctic sea ice extent is declining at an accelerating pace, and climate models project a seasonally ice-free Arctic Ocean by the middle of this century in response to increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations [see Stroeve et al. (2012) , and references therein]. The sea ice loss is expected to have numerous consequences for regional climate, including Arctic amplification (enhanced warming in the Arctic compared to lower latitudes) and increased precipitation at high

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David Ferreira, John Marshall, Cecilia M. Bitz, Susan Solomon, and Alan Plumb

shift of the westerly winds. These circulation trends have been attributed in large part to ozone depletion in the stratosphere over Antarctica ( Gillett and Thompson 2003 ; G. J. Marshall et al. 2004 ; Polvani et al. 2011 ). During the same period, an expansion of the Southern Hemisphere sea ice cover has been observed, which most studies find to be significant ( Zwally et al. 2002 ; Comiso and Nushio 2008 ; Turner et al. 2009 ). This expansion is observed in all seasons but is most marked in

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