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Lars-Arne Rahm and Urban Svensson

fluctuations are described by a stochastic process. Arnold (1974) has shown that Langevin's equationyields vertical velocities with the requested properties.Hence, it seems justifiable to use this equation in describing the particle velocities in a turbulent flow. Itdescribes the motion of a fluid particle subject to botha random acceleration and a retarding force. (Note thatLangevin's equation has its roots in two "worlds," themacroscopic "world" represented by the drag force,and the microscopic "world

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Michael Hantel

developed for a zonally uniform, tropical, two-layerocean on a north-south vertical section..The lower layer is infinitely deep, at rest, and at constant temperature. The dynamics of the well-mixed surface layer are described in terms of the components of horizontalmass transport, the specific mass, and the specific enthalpy. The forcing functions of the model are thezonal wind stress, the vertical entrainment of cold water from the lower layer into the surface layer, and thesurface thermal energy input

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Th Fichefet and Ph Gaspar

motion tothe oceanic current and/or the wind (e.g., Nansen,1902; Zubov, 1944; Bryan, 1969). The most complexmodels compute the ice motion and deformation as afunction of the atmospheric and oceanic forcing, takinginto account the sea-ice rheology (Hibler, 1979). Coupled thermodynamic and dynamic sea-ice models haveappeared more recently (Hibler, 1980). In many studies, the sea ice has been coupled to asimple slab ocean, i.e., a mixed layer with a fixed depth.Furthermore, a constant heat flux from

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Xin Chen and Xiping Yu

phase and the mixture and the Reynolds-averaged equations of motion for both the sediment and the fluid phases are chosen to form the governing equation system following Chen et al. (2011b) : where α is the volumetric concentration; u is the velocity; p is the pressure; F is the interphase force; the subscripts f and s stand for the fluid and the sediment phase, respectively; the indices i and j are used in accordance with the summation convention; x is the Cartesian coordinate

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Rainer Bleck, Dingming Hu, Howard P. Hanson, and Eric B. Kraust

variability, is difficult to assess. Therefore, weused the Lamb and Bunker (1982) data to obtain "radiative fluxes" indirectly, as a residual of the heatbudget of the North Atlantic. This method has the advantage that unknown modulators of radiative fluxes,notably clouds, are implicitly included in the forcing.It further allows the basin-averaged energy input to beadjusted to net zero mean. This is necessary for thecalculations discussed here because the North Atlanticexports heat to latitudes higher than

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J. Thomas Farrar and Theodore S. Durland

, that the ocean preferentially resonates at the wavenumber-frequency locus where the group velocity vanishes, or second, that the atmospheric forcing is strongest on basin scales, causing the oceanic response to be concentrated at small zonal wavenumbers. Given the available data, the frequencies predicted by the two hypotheses could not be distinguished from each other, leading Eriksen (1982) to estimate wavenumber–frequency spectra. However, the limited dataset still did not allow any

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Ke Chen and Ruoying He

by a complete suite of forcing functions, can reproduce known features of the MAB shelfbreak circulation. Unless the model gets the mean states of shelfbreak circulation correct, it is questionable that one can use the model to exam the high-frequency variability associated with the shelfbreak frontal circulation. We start in section 2 with a description of the shelfbreak ocean model utilized in this research. Section 3 presents model–data comparisons, the structures of simulated mean

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Shuo Li, Alexander V. Babanin, Fangli Qiao, Dejun Dai, Shumin Jiang, and Changlong Guan

; Friedlingstein et al. 2019 ; DeVries et al. 2019 ; Delire et al. 2019 ). The ocean is one of the largest reservoirs to mitigate the increment of atmospheric CO 2 , absorbing about 30% of the released CO 2 through gas exchange across the air–sea interface. The CO 2 gas flux F between the atmosphere and ocean is generally described as the product of gas transfer velocity ( K CO 2 ), gas solubility s in seawater, and thermodynamic driving force in terms of the partial pressure difference: (1) F = K CO 2

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Gunnar I. Roden

VOL. 7, NO. 6 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY NOVEMBER 1977Oceanic Subarctic Fronts of the Central Pacific: Structure of and Response to Atmospheric Forcing~ GIJNNAR I. R0~ENDepartment of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle 98195(Manuscript received 10 March 1977, in revised form 10 June 1977)ABSTRACT The oceanic fronts in the subarctic region of the central North Pacific are

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Cátia C. Azevedo, Carolina M. L. Camargo, José Alves, and Rui M. A. Caldeira

differences of temperature on the order of 4°C between the wake region and surrounding oceanic waters. The SST records (dataset with 1-km resolution; Fig. 2d ) show one area with absence of clouds concurrent with sea surface temperatures close to 25°C. In contrast, the temperatures of the surrounding oceanic waters varied between 21° and 22°C. 4. Results a. Solar irradiance and sea surface temperature Considering that solar irradiance is one of the main forcing mechanisms for the establishment of the

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