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Zhongkun Hong, Zhongying Han, Xueying Li, Di Long, Guoqiang Tang, and Jianhua Wang

America ( He et al. 2016 ). In addition, the random forest–based merging procedure (RF-MEP) that combines gridded precipitation products performs well over Chile for 2000–16 ( Baez-Villanueva et al. 2020 ). A recurrent neural network (RNN) model for simulating the hydrological response from various sources of rainfall was used to merge multiple precipitation sources for flash flood forecasting in Taiwan in China, indicating the potential of neural networks in merging multisource information ( Chiang

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Linlin Wang, Zhiqiu Gao, Zaitao Pan, Xiaofeng Guo, and Elie Bou-Zeid

using the transfer-function technique with the cospectral models of Kaimal et al. (1972) (see Moore 1986 for algorithm). The planar fit coordinate is then applied by following the recommendation of Wilczak et al. (2001) . The above corrections are implemented by using the EdiRe software, developed by the University of Edinburgh (see ). Following Foken and Wichura (1996) and Foken et al. (2004) , a stationarity test is made for the

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Shan Lin, Genxu Wang, Zhaoyong Hu, Kewei Huang, Xiangyang Sun, Juying Sun, Meng Luo, and Xiao Xiao

was produced by the most advanced technique of four-dimensional variational data assimilation, provides a comprehensive atmospheric dataset and is suitable for studying climate change and multidecadal variation ( Kobayashi et al. 2015 ). We obtained variables including the upward longwave radiation, upward shortwave radiation, downward longwave radiation, downward shortwave radiation, SM, and soil temperature from the JRA-55 ( ). This 6-hourly reanalysis

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Bailing Li, Matthew Rodell, Christa Peters-Lidard, Jessica Erlingis, Sujay Kumar, and David Mocko

). Such efforts and applications would benefit from better understanding of the environmental controls on recharge, which to date have not been as closely examined as other land surface processes. Measuring recharge in the field is challenging and often relies on simplified assumptions. For instance, techniques using tracers to determine residence time assume steady state and piston flow in the subsurface ( Edmunds and Gaye 1994 ; Flint et al. 2002 ), which is unrealistic, especially in humid regions

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Theodore J. Bohn, Mergia Y. Sonessa, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

application in meteorological and climate modeling dates at least to Krishnamurti et al. (1999) , who found that the simple average of weather forecasts produced by several meteorological models resulted in greater forecast skill than any individual model. A variety of techniques have been developed for combining models, which amounts to selecting weights. Among the methods that have been explored are equal-weight average, multiple linear regression ( Krishnamurti et al. 1999 ; 2000 ), maximum

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Ted M. Uecker, Susan D. Kaspari, Keith N. Musselman, and S. McKenzie Skiles

charred trees contributes to snow albedo reductions and how this effect varies with burn age and burn severity. These dynamics are not currently considered in operational snowmelt forecasting, or in Earth system models (e.g., Li et al. 2013 ). Resolving the effects of wildfire on snowpack is of critical importance in the western United States and particularly in the Cascade Range, where snow water resources are at exceptional risk of climate change and severe wildfire ( Nolin and Daly 2006 ; Allen

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Shanshui Yuan, Laiyin Zhu, and Steven M. Quiring

the moving boundary technique (MBT). Similar to the approach developed by Zhu and Quiring (2017) , we used a daily moving boundary to define which rain gauges received TC-related precipitation. A daily moving boundary was constructed by connecting circles with 500-km radius centered on the storm center locations reported by the International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS; Knapp et al. 2018 ). Normally there are four connected circles for each day because the IBTrACS has a 6

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Dudley B. Chelton and Craig M. Risien

. Part I: Development of the Index . J. Hydrometeor. , 21 , 1945 – 1976 , . 10.1175/JHM-D-19-0230.1 Davis , R. E. , 1977 : Techniques for statistical analysis and prediction of geophysical fluid systems . Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. , 8 , 245 – 277 , . 10.1080/03091927708240383 Edwards , D. C. , and T. B. McKee , 1997 : Characteristics of 20th century drought in the United States at multiple time

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Xiaoyin Liu, Junzeng Xu, Shihong Yang, Yuping Lv, and Yang Zhuang

.01.003 . 10.1016/j.jag.2004.01.003 Finnigan , J. J. , R. Clement , Y. Malhi , R. Leuning , and H. A. Cleugh , 2003 : A re-evaluation of long-term flux measurement techniques–Part I: Averaging and coordinate rotation . Bound.-Layer Meteor. , 107 , 1 – 48 , . 10.1023/A:1021554900225 Foken , T. , 2008 : The energy balance closure problem: An overview . Ecol. Appl. , 18 , 1351 – 1367 , . 10.1890/06-0922.1 Foken

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Paulo Rodrigo Zanin and Prakki Satyamurty

: Discharge variability within the Amazon basin. IAHS Publ. , 296 , 21–30. Rozante , J. R. , D. S. Moreira , L. G. G. Gonçalves , and D. Vila , 2010 : Combining TRMM and surface observations of precipitation: Technique and validation over South America . Wea. Forecasting , 25 , 885 – 894 , . 10.1175/2010WAF2222325.1 Satyamurty , P. , C. P. W. Costa , and A. O. Manzi , 2012 : Moisture source for the Amazon basin: A study of contrasting

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