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Dashan Wang, Xianwei Wang, Lin Liu, Dagang Wang, and Zhenzhong Zeng

heterogeneity of precipitation from 2008 to 2015 ( Fig. 1a ). The CMPA was derived from merging dense rain gauge network observations (~30 000 automatic weather stations) from the China Meteorology Administration (CMA) with the Climate Prediction Center morphing technique (CMORPH) satellite-based quantitative precipitation estimates ( Joyce et al. 2004 ). It is in 0.1°/hourly resolution and starts from January 2008 to present over mainland China ( Shen et al. 2014 ). This product shows good performance over

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Sharon E. Nicholson, Douglas Klotter, and Adam T. Hartman

African gauge data, using “smart” interpolation techniques that take the spatial correlation structure into account. The CHIRPS2 data have low bias and better gauge coverage over Africa compared to other similar products ( Dezfuli et al. 2017 ). PERSIANN-CDR ( Ashouri et al. 2015 ) is also based on geostationary thermal IR brightness temperature, with a neural network approach applied to produce the precipitation estimates. The product is calibrated using NCEP/NCAR precipitation forecasts. It is bias

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Linlin Wang, Zhiqiu Gao, Zaitao Pan, Xiaofeng Guo, and Elie Bou-Zeid

using the transfer-function technique with the cospectral models of Kaimal et al. (1972) (see Moore 1986 for algorithm). The planar fit coordinate is then applied by following the recommendation of Wilczak et al. (2001) . The above corrections are implemented by using the EdiRe software, developed by the University of Edinburgh (see http://www.geos.ed.ac.uk/abs/research/micromet/EdiRe/ ). Following Foken and Wichura (1996) and Foken et al. (2004) , a stationarity test is made for the

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Shan Lin, Genxu Wang, Zhaoyong Hu, Kewei Huang, Xiangyang Sun, Juying Sun, Meng Luo, and Xiao Xiao

was produced by the most advanced technique of four-dimensional variational data assimilation, provides a comprehensive atmospheric dataset and is suitable for studying climate change and multidecadal variation ( Kobayashi et al. 2015 ). We obtained variables including the upward longwave radiation, upward shortwave radiation, downward longwave radiation, downward shortwave radiation, SM, and soil temperature from the JRA-55 ( https://rda.ucar.edu/datasets/ds628.0/ ). This 6-hourly reanalysis

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Bailing Li, Matthew Rodell, Christa Peters-Lidard, Jessica Erlingis, Sujay Kumar, and David Mocko

). Such efforts and applications would benefit from better understanding of the environmental controls on recharge, which to date have not been as closely examined as other land surface processes. Measuring recharge in the field is challenging and often relies on simplified assumptions. For instance, techniques using tracers to determine residence time assume steady state and piston flow in the subsurface ( Edmunds and Gaye 1994 ; Flint et al. 2002 ), which is unrealistic, especially in humid regions

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Ted M. Uecker, Susan D. Kaspari, Keith N. Musselman, and S. McKenzie Skiles

charred trees contributes to snow albedo reductions and how this effect varies with burn age and burn severity. These dynamics are not currently considered in operational snowmelt forecasting, or in Earth system models (e.g., Li et al. 2013 ). Resolving the effects of wildfire on snowpack is of critical importance in the western United States and particularly in the Cascade Range, where snow water resources are at exceptional risk of climate change and severe wildfire ( Nolin and Daly 2006 ; Allen

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Theodore J. Bohn, Mergia Y. Sonessa, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

application in meteorological and climate modeling dates at least to Krishnamurti et al. (1999) , who found that the simple average of weather forecasts produced by several meteorological models resulted in greater forecast skill than any individual model. A variety of techniques have been developed for combining models, which amounts to selecting weights. Among the methods that have been explored are equal-weight average, multiple linear regression ( Krishnamurti et al. 1999 ; 2000 ), maximum

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Shanshui Yuan, Laiyin Zhu, and Steven M. Quiring

the moving boundary technique (MBT). Similar to the approach developed by Zhu and Quiring (2017) , we used a daily moving boundary to define which rain gauges received TC-related precipitation. A daily moving boundary was constructed by connecting circles with 500-km radius centered on the storm center locations reported by the International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS; Knapp et al. 2018 ). Normally there are four connected circles for each day because the IBTrACS has a 6

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Dudley B. Chelton and Craig M. Risien

. Part I: Development of the Index . J. Hydrometeor. , 21 , 1945 – 1976 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JHM-D-19-0230.1 . 10.1175/JHM-D-19-0230.1 Davis , R. E. , 1977 : Techniques for statistical analysis and prediction of geophysical fluid systems . Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. , 8 , 245 – 277 , https://doi.org/10.1080/03091927708240383 . 10.1080/03091927708240383 Edwards , D. C. , and T. B. McKee , 1997 : Characteristics of 20th century drought in the United States at multiple time

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Wonbae Bang, GyuWon Lee, Alexander Ryzhkov, Terry Schuur, and Kyo-Sun Sunny Lim

Asian monsoon. Acknowledgments This study was funded by the Korea Environmental Industry & Technology Institute (KEITI) of the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) as “Advanced Water Management Research Program” (79615) and by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program “Enhancement of Convergence Technology of Analysis and Forecast on Severe Weather” under Grant (KMA2018-00121). Funding for T. Schuur and A. Ryzhkov was provided by NOAA/Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric

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