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Dashan Wang, Xianwei Wang, Lin Liu, Dagang Wang, and Zhenzhong Zeng

heterogeneity of precipitation from 2008 to 2015 ( Fig. 1a ). The CMPA was derived from merging dense rain gauge network observations (~30 000 automatic weather stations) from the China Meteorology Administration (CMA) with the Climate Prediction Center morphing technique (CMORPH) satellite-based quantitative precipitation estimates ( Joyce et al. 2004 ). It is in 0.1°/hourly resolution and starts from January 2008 to present over mainland China ( Shen et al. 2014 ). This product shows good performance over

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Ju-Yu Chen, Silke Trömel, Alexander Ryzhkov, and Clemens Simmer

) relations and on the attenuation parameter α H / V nearly cancel each other out and can be ignored ( Wang et al. 2014 ). While the R ( A H / V ) technique is frequently used for S- and X-band radars ( Ryzhkov et al. 2014 ; Wang et al. 2019 ; Zhang et al. 2020 ; Diederich et al. 2015a , b ), only few applications are known for C band because of detrimental resonance effects associated with large raindrops and hail in this wavelength range [see studies of Giangrande et al. (2014) , Wang et al

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Theodore J. Bohn, Mergia Y. Sonessa, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

application in meteorological and climate modeling dates at least to Krishnamurti et al. (1999) , who found that the simple average of weather forecasts produced by several meteorological models resulted in greater forecast skill than any individual model. A variety of techniques have been developed for combining models, which amounts to selecting weights. Among the methods that have been explored are equal-weight average, multiple linear regression ( Krishnamurti et al. 1999 ; 2000 ), maximum

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Shan Lin, Genxu Wang, Zhaoyong Hu, Kewei Huang, Xiangyang Sun, Juying Sun, Meng Luo, and Xiao Xiao

was produced by the most advanced technique of four-dimensional variational data assimilation, provides a comprehensive atmospheric dataset and is suitable for studying climate change and multidecadal variation ( Kobayashi et al. 2015 ). We obtained variables including the upward longwave radiation, upward shortwave radiation, downward longwave radiation, downward shortwave radiation, SM, and soil temperature from the JRA-55 ( https://rda.ucar.edu/datasets/ds628.0/ ). This 6-hourly reanalysis

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Ping Song and Guosheng Liu

contaminated by ground clutters, which are usually 1.5 km above actual surface at nadir and even higher at off-nadir positions. To perform a uniform phase determination across both CPR and DPR observations, we choose to apply a rain–snow separation scheme developed by Sims and Liu (2015) with the input of environmental variables from the fifth generation European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis (ERA5; Hersbach et al. 2020 ). The Sims and Liu (2015) scheme is a statistical

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Linlin Wang, Zhiqiu Gao, Zaitao Pan, Xiaofeng Guo, and Elie Bou-Zeid

using the transfer-function technique with the cospectral models of Kaimal et al. (1972) (see Moore 1986 for algorithm). The planar fit coordinate is then applied by following the recommendation of Wilczak et al. (2001) . The above corrections are implemented by using the EdiRe software, developed by the University of Edinburgh (see http://www.geos.ed.ac.uk/abs/research/micromet/EdiRe/ ). Following Foken and Wichura (1996) and Foken et al. (2004) , a stationarity test is made for the

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Bailing Li, Matthew Rodell, Christa Peters-Lidard, Jessica Erlingis, Sujay Kumar, and David Mocko

). Such efforts and applications would benefit from better understanding of the environmental controls on recharge, which to date have not been as closely examined as other land surface processes. Measuring recharge in the field is challenging and often relies on simplified assumptions. For instance, techniques using tracers to determine residence time assume steady state and piston flow in the subsurface ( Edmunds and Gaye 1994 ; Flint et al. 2002 ), which is unrealistic, especially in humid regions

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Shanshui Yuan, Laiyin Zhu, and Steven M. Quiring

the moving boundary technique (MBT). Similar to the approach developed by Zhu and Quiring (2017) , we used a daily moving boundary to define which rain gauges received TC-related precipitation. A daily moving boundary was constructed by connecting circles with 500-km radius centered on the storm center locations reported by the International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS; Knapp et al. 2018 ). Normally there are four connected circles for each day because the IBTrACS has a 6

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Wonbae Bang, GyuWon Lee, Alexander Ryzhkov, Terry Schuur, and Kyo-Sun Sunny Lim

Asian monsoon. Acknowledgments This study was funded by the Korea Environmental Industry & Technology Institute (KEITI) of the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) as “Advanced Water Management Research Program” (79615) and by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program “Enhancement of Convergence Technology of Analysis and Forecast on Severe Weather” under Grant (KMA2018-00121). Funding for T. Schuur and A. Ryzhkov was provided by NOAA/Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric

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Paulo Rodrigo Zanin and Prakki Satyamurty

: Discharge variability within the Amazon basin. IAHS Publ. , 296 , 21–30. Rozante , J. R. , D. S. Moreira , L. G. G. Gonçalves , and D. Vila , 2010 : Combining TRMM and surface observations of precipitation: Technique and validation over South America . Wea. Forecasting , 25 , 885 – 894 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2010WAF2222325.1 . 10.1175/2010WAF2222325.1 Satyamurty , P. , C. P. W. Costa , and A. O. Manzi , 2012 : Moisture source for the Amazon basin: A study of contrasting

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