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Jean-Jacques Morcrette and Christian Jakob

1. Introduction Although some assumptions on the vertical overlapping of cloud layers are always present in any computation of the radiation fields for a model producing fractional cloudiness in model levels, there have been in the past very few attempts at studying the impact of the different possible cloud overlap assumptions (COA) on the results of a general circulation model (GCM). While a change in cloud overlap assumption has been present in some sensitivity studies [e.g., Cubasch (1981

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Maike Ahlgrimm and Richard Forbes

– 2067 . Räisänen , P. , H. Barker , and J. Cole , 2005 : The Monte Carlo independent column approximation’s conditional random noise: Impact on simulated climate . J. Climate , 18 , 4715 – 4730 . Shonk , J. , and R. Hogan , 2010 : Effect of improving representation of horizontal and vertical cloud structure on the earth’s global radiation budget. Part II: The global effects . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 136 ( 650 ), 1205 – 1215 . Stoffel , T. , 2005 : Solar infrared

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Jason A. Otkin

impact model performance ( Mitchell et al. 2002 ; Kepert 2009 ). Vertical covariance localization is difficult for satellite radiances since they are an integrated measure sensitive to a potentially broad layer of the atmosphere. For infrared radiances, the vertical level at which an observation has its greatest sensitivity (i.e., where the weighting function peaks) is typically a function of highly variable fields such as temperature, water vapor, clouds, and aerosols, which makes it difficult to

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Eric A. Smith

) associated with theITCZ exhibit reduced values of net flux. It is evidentfrom these maps that the heat low region acts as a relative radiation sink with respect to much of the monsoon region. This property is due to the anomalouslyhigh values of albedo and emitted infrared radiationassociated with the desert interior. However, as shownin Fig. 1, based on the lower resolution but more preciseNimbus-7 NFOV measurements, the heat low is notan absolute radiation sink on a time scale of the dailyaverage

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Frank H. Ruggiero, George D. Modica, and Alan E. Lipton

effects from satellite imager data is, in many respects, similar to the one reported in Lipton (1993) . The method involves retrieving from satellite image data the effective solar transmittances and infrared emittances over cloudy areas within the domain, and then assimilating that information into the model computations of surface downwelling radiation. The use of the MM4 as assimilating mesoscale model is a change from the system reported in Lipton (1993) . The mesoscale model used previously was

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Andrew F. Bunker

ofentire Marsden squares (10- x 10- s.quares). Thefollowing variables have been recorded on magnetictape: air and sea temperature, air minus sea temperature, mixing ratio, cloud cover, wind .speed,east and north wind components, direction of resultant wind, rainfall frequency, sea level pressure,and (from other sources) sea-ice coverages. Fluxesof solar radiation, infrared radiation, latent heat,sensible heat and components of the momentumhave been computed as described by Budyko (1963)and Bunker (1976

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infra-red part of the solar spectrum,made in North Africa during 1926-27. Cracovie. 1933. p. 1-15. figs. 24% cm. (Estr.: Bull. Acad. polon. sci. etlettr. C1. sci. math. et natur. ser. A.: sci. math. 1933.)Atmospheric transmission in the water vnpour absorption bands p and *, according to spec- trographic measurements made in Tunisia in 1926-27. Cracovie. 1933. p. 17-2s. tables, diagrs. 2441 cni.(Estr.: Bull. Acad. polon. sci. et lettr. C1. sci. math. et natur. ser. -4.: sci. math. 1933.) (With

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Alan E. Lipton

enabling the modelto compute two separate energy-balance solutions atgrid points that satellite imagery indicates are cloudy.The first solution uses clear-air values of solar and infrared radiation (yielding ~lear), and the second usescloud-affected radiation values (yielding Tcloud), wherethe cloud effect is retrieved from imagery, as describedlater in this section. The Ycloud solution can be useddirectly as a bottom boundary condition in model runs,but is susceptible to errors when soil

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Jiuhua Feng and Yi-Leng Chen

and rain-cooled air from the downdraft outflow, whereas on the upper slopes, the extensive orographic clouds reduce the infrared radiation heat loss and cause a slower temperature decrease than in dry cases. As a result, on wet days, the katabatic flow onset is earlier on the windward lowlands and coastal regions, but later on the upper slopes. Carbone et al. (1995) also found that thermal forcing is important for the flow reversal on the windward slope. Nevertheless, they attributed evaporative

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Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., Oct. 1970,66 pp.Valovcin, Francis It., "Infrared Measurernents of Jet-Stream Cir-rus," Journal of Applicd Motc,orology, Vol. 7, No. 5, Oct. 1968,Zdunkowski, Wilforcl, Henderson, Donald, and Hales, J. J:crn,"The Influence of Hazr on Infrared Radiat.ion XZcasuremcntsDetected by Space Vehicles," Tellus, Vol. 17, No. 2, Stockholm.Sweden, May 1965, pp. 147-165.pp. 817-886.[Received March 23, 1971; revised Jdy 16, 19711February 1972 f Keegan f 125

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