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Julie A. Silva and Corene J. Matyas

socioeconomic characteristics across the zones. We use longitudinal household-level socioeconomic data from the TIA to calculate changes in annual crop income, participation in different crop types, income shares from different crop types, land area under cultivation, and other characteristics of households over the 2002–05 time period. 2 The survey sample is nationally representative of small- and medium-scale farm households. 3 After eliminating extreme outliers and households that did not receive any

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Veronica Makuvaro, Cyril T. F. Murewi, John Dimes, and Ignatius Chagonda

vulnerable to food insecurity because of communities’ limited capacities to adapt to environmental changes. During the last three decades or so, the southern Africa region has experienced frequent intense droughts ( Vogel et al. 2010 ; Rouault and Richard 2005 ) that have had a negative impact on regional food security. A few studies, using daily data, have been carried out in Zimbabwe (e.g., Makuvaro 2014 ; Mazvimavi 2010 ; Aguilar et al. 2009 ; New et al. 2006 ) to determine the trends in

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Jeffrey Czajkowski and James Done

hurricane winds at the land surface are highly turbulent because of interaction with the high friction land surface and damaging 3-s gusts can far exceed the mean wind speed ( Vickery et al. 2009 ). To explore sensitivity to the threshold wind speed, we define three physically based wind speed thresholds: hurricane force (33 m s −1 ) 1-min mean wind, a slightly reduced 1-min mean wind speed that can sustain 3-s hurricane force gusts (25 m s −1 ; using a gust factor of 1.3 following Vickery et al. 2009

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Scott E. Kalafatis, Julie C. Libarkin, Kyle Powys Whyte, and Chris Caldwell

mediate between indigenous and nonindigenous groups, such as students or scientists ( Medin and Bang 2014 ). At the same time, residuals, such as how the term “invasive” erases the land-use changes that brought the species to a new place or how depictions of nature sometimes fail to show humans in them, can further entrench Native concerns that their experiences and cultures are being excluded ( Bang et al. 2014 ). In Fig. 1 , an object spans the gap between social identities A and B, but while some

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Kathleen Sherman-Morris, Karla B. Antonelli, and Carrick C. Williams

when designing graphical information. One of the most frequent recommendations regarding color in visualization pertains to the type of data being represented by the map or image. When displaying variation in a qualitative variable (e.g., types of land cover), multiple hues (colors) with no obvious perceptual order should be used. When the image shows variation in a quantitative variable (e.g., amount of precipitation), a sequential scale where a single hue’s luminance or brightness is altered is

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Anthony Leiserowitz

fossil fuels, industrial processes, deforestation, and other land use changes. In turn, these proximate causes are rooted in the patterns, systems, and institutions of human decision making and behavior, ranging from the individual to the household, community, private sector, civil society, and nation-state. Thus, the causes of this problem are ultimately rooted in human choice and behavior. Likewise, the solutions to climate change require shifts in human decision making and behavior at each of

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S. Ziaja

and hydropower systems, through the incorporation of CI (e.g., seasonal forecasts) and linking reservoir operations ( Medellín-Azuara et al. 2008 ; Viers 2011 ; Willis et al. 2011 ; A. Georgakakos et al. 2012 ; Georgakakos et al. 2013 ). However, despite the proliferation of models and DSS, they are rarely adopted for actual use by water and energy decisionmakers [ Ziaja 2017 ; see also Garfin et al. (2008) , discussing use of DSS in the public sector]. This is consistent with the CI “use gap

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Esther Chiew, Rachel A. Davidson, Joseph E. Trainor, Linda K. Nozick, and Jamie L. Kruse

1. Introduction In 2017, an independent cost–benefit analysis commissioned by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) of federally funded natural hazard mitigation efforts found that mitigating against wind damage saved $5 for every $1 spent ( Porter et al. 2017 ). Mitigation measures studied included using tie-down straps, strengthening overhangs and openings, and strengthening connections of attached structures. Too few grants had been administered for mitigation against the effects of

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Tanja Wolf, Glenn McGregor, and Antonis Analitis

one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson correlation coefficients ( Harlan et al. 2006 ). Similarly, Harlan et al. (2013) estimated neighborhood effects of population characteristics and the built and natural environments on deaths due to heat exposure in Maricopa County, Arizona (2000–08), using census data and remotely sensed vegetation and land surface temperature to construct and test indicators of neighborhood vulnerability, while Chow et al. (2012) combined spatially interpolated

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Valerie Githinji and Todd A. Crane

served as the cultural core and staple food for centuries and hold prominent meaning in the Bahaya agricultural way of life ( Schmidt 1997 ; Rugalema 1999 ; Githinji 2008 , 2011a ). This region is characterized by a long history of high rainfall, high population density, and intense use of the land through centuries of iron smelting, deforestation, pastoralism, and agriculture. The Bahaya agricultural system, known as the kibanja/rutabiro/rweya , 1 has in itself contributed to decreasing

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