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Burkard Baschek and David M. Farmer

. , Farmer D. M. , and Garrett C. , 2006 : Tidal fronts and their role in air–sea gas exchange. J. Mar. Res. , 64 , 483 – 515 . 10.1357/002224006778715766 Fan, L-S. , and Tsuchiya K. , 1990 : Bubble Wake Dynamics in Liquids and Liquid–Solid Suspensions . Butterworth-Heinemann, 384 pp . Farmer, D. M. , and Li M. , 1995 : Patterns of bubble clouds organized by Langmuir circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 25 , 1426 – 1440 . 10.1175/1520-0485(1995)025<1426:POBCOB>2.0.CO;2 Farmer, D. M

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N. J. Kerry, R. J. Burt, N. M. Lane, and M. T. Bagg

's navigation radar (Ziegenbein, 1969;Trask and Briscoe, 1983). Periodic modulations ofsurface reflectivity are also commonly observed byimaging radars such as the Seasat SAR. Internalwaves are a possible generation mechanism for suchfeatures (Ewing, 1950) with slicks .lying above theinternal wave troughs (LaFond, 1962). Usually suchfeatures are attributed to internal waves althoughother candidate mechanisms such ag Langmuir circulation exist (Mollo-Christensen, 1981). Simultaneous in situ measurements can

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Carl Wunsch

1. Introduction The rate of working by the wind on the oceanic general circulation is one of the fundamental quantitative indicators of the coupling between the atmosphere and ocean. The wind, along with the tides (see Munk and Wunsch 1998 , hereafter MW98), is apparently, and contrary to intuition, the fundamental determinant of the oceanic heat flux. There seem to have been only a few efforts to estimate the rate at which the wind works on the ocean, including Faller (1968) , Fofonoff

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Giselher Gust

, Fig. 2; Studerus,1982, Figs. 5.5 and 6.17; Nezu and Nakagawa, 1984,Fig. 3), through Taylor-G6rtler instabilities due toconvex bottom curvature in downstream direction(G6rtler, 1941; Hunt and Joubert, 1979), and mightalso be generated through wave-current interactionas has been proposed for Langmuir circulation (Langmuir, 1938; Faller and Caponi, 1978; Garrett, 1976).At the CODE-1 site, helicals might have been generated by wave-current interactions and/or the slopinglarge-scale bottom topography

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John Trowbridge, Malcolm Scully, and Christopher R. Sherwood

ripple heights; (iii) an upward-looking, five-beam Nortek Signature acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) for measuring waves and currents and detecting the presence and characteristics of Langmuir circulations ( Gargett et al. 2004 ; Gargett and Wells 2007 ); (iv) temperature and conductivity sensors (RBR Solo-Ts and Sea-Bird MicroCATs) to measure the stratification; and (v) downward-looking, Imagenex, rotary, azimuth-drive, pencil-beam and rotary fan-beam sonars to quantify bed forms. The

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Xiaohui Xie, Ming Li, Malcolm Scully, and William C. Boicourt

. P. Sanford , and W. C. Boicourt , 2015 : Characterization and modulation of Langmuir circulation in Chesapeake Bay . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 45 , 2621 – 2639 , doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-14-0239.1 . 10.1175/JPO-D-14-0239.1 Wang , D. , 2006 : Tidally generated internal waves in partially mixed estuaries . Cont. Shelf Res. , 26 , 1469 – 1480 , doi: 10.1016/j.csr.2006.02.015 . 10.1016/j.csr.2006.02.015 Xie , X.-H. , Y. Cuypers , P. Bouruet-Aubertot , A. Pichon , A. Lourenço , and

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Fabrice Veron, W. Kendall Melville, and Luc Lenain

interface, bubbles, and droplets may play an important role in these fluxes. For example, it was found that breaking waves ( Agrawal et al. 1992 ; Thorpe 1993 ; Melville 1994 ; Anis and Moum 1995 ; Melville 1996 ; Terray et al. 1996 ; Veron and Melville 1999a ), along with small-scale Langmuir circulations and coherent structures ( Melville et al. 1998 ; Veron and Melville 1999b , 2001 ), may lead to enhanced levels of turbulence and mixing, and heat and gas transfer ( Jähne et al. 1987 ; Hasse

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Peng Wang, James C. McWilliams, Yusuke Uchiyama, Mickaël D. Chekroun, and Daling Li Yi

. , 39 , L24604 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL054034 . 10.1029/2012GL054034 Craik , A. D. , and S. Leibovich , 1976 : A rational model for Langmuir circulations . J. Fluid Mech. , 73 , 401 – 426 , https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022112076001420 . 10.1017/S0022112076001420 Dalrymple , R. A. , J. H. MacMahan , A. J. Reniers , and V. Nelko , 2011 : Rip currents . Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. , 43 , 551 – 581 , https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-fluid-122109-160733 . 10.1146/annurev

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P. Wadhams, J. P. Wilkinson, and A. Kaletzky

1. Introduction Recent evidence of changes in the Arctic indicate that the sea ice cover is undergoing a significant thinning ( Rothrock et al. 1999 ; Wadhams and Davis 2000 ) and retreat (e.g., Bjørgo et al. 1997 ). General circulation models using greenhouse gas forcing predict that the Arctic ice cover will continue to diminish because of global warming and may become seasonal by the 2080s. At the same time, it is possible that the current ice shrinkage is a response to oceanic and

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Qian Li and Sukyoung Lee

-resolution atmosphere–ocean coupled model . J. Climate , 24 , 3830 – 3849 , doi: 10.1175/2011JCLI3888.1 . 10.1175/2011JCLI3888.1 Li , Qian , S. Lee , and A. Griesel , 2016 : Eddy fluxes and jet-scale overturning circulations in the Indo–western Pacific Southern Ocean . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 46 , 2943 – 2959 , doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-15-0241.1 . 10.1175/JPO-D-15-0241.1 Li , Qing , A. Webb , B. Fox-Kemper , A. Craig , G. Danabasoglu , W. G. Large , and M. Vertenstein , 2016 : Langmuir

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