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Gilles R. C. Essou, Florent Sabarly, Philippe Lucas-Picher, François Brissette, and Annie Poulin

NCEP from a coupled climate system atmosphere–ocean–land surface with an interactive sea ice component. It covers the period from 1979 to the present and uses a three-dimensional variational data assimilation approach ( Saha et al. 2010 ). CFSR assimilates satellite radiance rather than estimated temperature and humidity values ( Wang et al. 2011 ). Estimates of greenhouse gas concentration changes, aerosols, and solar variations are used as forcings in CFSR; CFSR also assimilates hydrological

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Sonia I. Seneviratne, Randal D. Koster, Zhichang Guo, Paul A. Dirmeyer, Eva Kowalczyk, David Lawrence, Ping Liu, David Mocko, Cheng-Hsuan Lu, Keith W. Oleson, and Diana Verseghy

prescribed sea surface temperature (SST). The SST boundary conditions for the integrations are the observed conditions in 1994, a year not characterized by either El Niño or La Niña conditions. Note then that the impact of interannually varying SSTs on soil moisture memory, which can be particularly strong in the Tropics ( Koster et al. 2000 ), is not analyzed in this study. For the initialization of the ensemble simulations, GLACE participants were provided with various approaches that ensured that the

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Ian D. Phillips and Glenn R. McGregor

temperature ranges (e.g., a 9°C range is observed in west Cornwall as compared with 14°C in central England) and winter rainfall maxima are two of the defining characteristics of the climate of the southwest peninsula ( Perry 1997 ). The two administrative counties that compose the peninsula are Devon and Cornwall. In southwest England, annual rainfall totals at locations close to mean sea level fall within the narrow range of 800–1200 mm. The region's three major upland areas (Dartmoor, Exmoor, and

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Paul A. Dirmeyer

1. Introduction In recent years there has been increasing attention on the land surface as a source of enhanced seasonal climate predictability beyond what can be attained through knowledge of the evolution of sea surface temperature (SST) and its effect on the general circulation of the atmosphere. The land surface state includes variables such as soil moisture and temperature, snowpack and other surface water stores, and the state of vegetation. Of these, soil moisture is perhaps the most

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Tim Kerr, M. S. Srinivasan, and Jeremy Rutherford

for this work is to extend the available information with which to constrain precipitation models for the region. 2. Methods a. Study area The Southern Alps at 42°S, 170°E run in a southwest–northeast angle within the South Island of New Zealand, with the Tasman Sea to the west and the Pacific Ocean to the east ( Fig. 1 ). The western edge of the Southern Alps is defined by the 400-km-long Alpine Fault that represents the transition from the eastern-lying Pacific plate overthrusting the eastern

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Ruth Lorenz, Andrew J. Pitman, Annette L. Hirsch, and Jhan Srbinovsky

avoid these costs by using generic simulations. We examine whether measures derived from these two approaches provide consistent results. 2. Methods a. Model description ACCESS is a state-of-the-art, fully coupled climate and weather prediction model ( Puri et al. 2013 ). ACCESS1.3b consists of the atmospheric Unified Model (UM); the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) land surface model; the Modular Ocean Model; and the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE; Bi et al. 2013 ). We used

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S. Fox, A. J. Pitman, A. Boone, and F. Habets

insight to direct future analyses toward specific areas within models that contain the causes of differences between models. This paper reports on the application of CHASM within the Rhône-Aggregation Intercomparison Project (Rhône-AGG), a Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Global Land–Atmosphere System Study initiative (GLASS; http://hydro.iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp/GLASS/ ). The Rhône is the largest European river discharging into the Mediterranean Sea, draining over 86 000 km 2 of

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Mutlu Ozdogan, Guido D. Salvucci, and Bruce T. Anderson

hydrologic cycle as well as low-level monsoon winds over the southwestern United States. Brenner (2000) also report good agreement between RSM-simulated and observed surface wind speed in the eastern Mediterranean region. Below, the model results, meteorological data, and recalibrated Penman potential evaporation equation, as well as the CR, are evaluated for the irrigated plains over southeastern Turkey. a. Complementary relationship within calibrated Penman equation Figure 4a shows the trend in

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Islem Hajji, Daniel F. Nadeau, Biljana Music, François Anctil, and Jingfeng Wang

characteristics of the test sites. Parameter z g represents the elevation above mean sea level, z c is the mean canopy height, P is the mean annual precipitation, and ET is the mean annual evapotranspiration. Koppen climate classes are humid continental (Dfa), humid subtropical (Cfa), Mediterranean (Csa), and semiarid climate (Bsk). To characterize each site in terms of its mean limiting factors for ET, namely, available energy “demand” (net radiation) and water “supply” (precipitation), the

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Manabendra Saharia, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, Humberto Vergara, Jonathan J. Gourley, Yang Hong, and Marine Giroud

the Mediterranean and decrease in intensity as one moves inland ( Gaume et al. 2009 ). Furthermore, they find that the seasonality of the inland, continental flash floods tends to be in the warm season months, while those closer to the Mediterranean Sea typically occur in autumn months. Until recently, the lack of a comprehensive database that catalogs information related to flash flood timing, location, and severity such as the causative rainfall and basin geomorphology have hindered broad

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