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George J. Huffman, Robert F. Adler, Mark M. Morrissey, David T. Bolvin, Scott Curtis, Robert Joyce, Brad McGavock, and Joel Susskind

during the boreal winter. The gradients along the northern coast of Africa reflect the transition from desert to the pattern of boreal wintertime storms that typifies the Mediterranean. Holes occur in individual geo-IR images, most routinely in the Indian Ocean sector, where no geo-IR data were available until June 1998. To compensate, leo-IR estimates from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)–series polar-orbiting satellites are processed to fill in holes as necessary. The leo

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Gilles R. C. Essou, Florent Sabarly, Philippe Lucas-Picher, François Brissette, and Annie Poulin

NCEP from a coupled climate system atmosphere–ocean–land surface with an interactive sea ice component. It covers the period from 1979 to the present and uses a three-dimensional variational data assimilation approach ( Saha et al. 2010 ). CFSR assimilates satellite radiance rather than estimated temperature and humidity values ( Wang et al. 2011 ). Estimates of greenhouse gas concentration changes, aerosols, and solar variations are used as forcings in CFSR; CFSR also assimilates hydrological

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Sujan Pal, Francina Dominguez, María Eugenia Dillon, Javier Alvarez, Carlos Marcelo Garcia, Stephen W. Nesbitt, and David Gochis

, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015MS000510 . 10.1002/2015MS000510 Senatore , A. , L. Furnari , and G. Mendicino , 2020 : Impact of high-resolution sea surface temperature presentation on the forecast of small Mediterranean catchments’ hydrological responses to heavy precipitation . Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. , 24 , 269 – 291 , https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-24-269-2020 . 10.5194/hess-24-269-2020 Seo , D. J. , V. Koren , and N. Cajina , 2003 : Real-time variational assimilation of

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Sonia I. Seneviratne, Randal D. Koster, Zhichang Guo, Paul A. Dirmeyer, Eva Kowalczyk, David Lawrence, Ping Liu, David Mocko, Cheng-Hsuan Lu, Keith W. Oleson, and Diana Verseghy

prescribed sea surface temperature (SST). The SST boundary conditions for the integrations are the observed conditions in 1994, a year not characterized by either El Niño or La Niña conditions. Note then that the impact of interannually varying SSTs on soil moisture memory, which can be particularly strong in the Tropics ( Koster et al. 2000 ), is not analyzed in this study. For the initialization of the ensemble simulations, GLACE participants were provided with various approaches that ensured that the

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Ian D. Phillips and Glenn R. McGregor

temperature ranges (e.g., a 9°C range is observed in west Cornwall as compared with 14°C in central England) and winter rainfall maxima are two of the defining characteristics of the climate of the southwest peninsula ( Perry 1997 ). The two administrative counties that compose the peninsula are Devon and Cornwall. In southwest England, annual rainfall totals at locations close to mean sea level fall within the narrow range of 800–1200 mm. The region's three major upland areas (Dartmoor, Exmoor, and

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Paul A. Dirmeyer

1. Introduction In recent years there has been increasing attention on the land surface as a source of enhanced seasonal climate predictability beyond what can be attained through knowledge of the evolution of sea surface temperature (SST) and its effect on the general circulation of the atmosphere. The land surface state includes variables such as soil moisture and temperature, snowpack and other surface water stores, and the state of vegetation. Of these, soil moisture is perhaps the most

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Tim Kerr, M. S. Srinivasan, and Jeremy Rutherford

for this work is to extend the available information with which to constrain precipitation models for the region. 2. Methods a. Study area The Southern Alps at 42°S, 170°E run in a southwest–northeast angle within the South Island of New Zealand, with the Tasman Sea to the west and the Pacific Ocean to the east ( Fig. 1 ). The western edge of the Southern Alps is defined by the 400-km-long Alpine Fault that represents the transition from the eastern-lying Pacific plate overthrusting the eastern

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Ruth Lorenz, Andrew J. Pitman, Annette L. Hirsch, and Jhan Srbinovsky

avoid these costs by using generic simulations. We examine whether measures derived from these two approaches provide consistent results. 2. Methods a. Model description ACCESS is a state-of-the-art, fully coupled climate and weather prediction model ( Puri et al. 2013 ). ACCESS1.3b consists of the atmospheric Unified Model (UM); the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) land surface model; the Modular Ocean Model; and the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE; Bi et al. 2013 ). We used

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S. Fox, A. J. Pitman, A. Boone, and F. Habets

insight to direct future analyses toward specific areas within models that contain the causes of differences between models. This paper reports on the application of CHASM within the Rhône-Aggregation Intercomparison Project (Rhône-AGG), a Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Global Land–Atmosphere System Study initiative (GLASS; http://hydro.iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp/GLASS/ ). The Rhône is the largest European river discharging into the Mediterranean Sea, draining over 86 000 km 2 of

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Zhenwei Li, Xianli Xu, Chaohao Xu, Meixian Liu, Kelin Wang, and Bofu Yu

approaches . Rev. Geophys. , 52 , 218 – 242 , doi: 10.1002/2013RG000443 . 10.1002/2013RG000443 Hartmann , A. , T. Gleeson , R. Rosolem , F. Pianosi , Y. Wada , and T. Wagener , 2015 : A large-scale simulation model to assess karstic groundwater recharge over Europe and the Mediterranean . Geosci. Model Dev. , 8 , 1729 – 1746 , doi: 10.5194/gmd-8-1729-2015 . 10.5194/gmd-8-1729-2015 Huang , S. , J. Chang , Q. Huang , and Y. Chen , 2014 : Monthly streamflow prediction using modified EMD

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