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Guoqing Ge, Jidong Gao, and Ming Xue

1. Introduction There are many challenges in forecasting convective storms. One of them is how to produce a dynamic consistent initial condition for storm-scale numerical weather prediction (NWP) (see the appendix for acronym expansions and variable definitions) models. Currently, the Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) network is the only source of routine observations in the United States that can resolve storm-scale features at high enough spatial and temporal resolutions

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Xi Liang, Qinghua Yang, Lars Nerger, Svetlana N. Losa, Biao Zhao, Fei Zheng, Lin Zhang, and Lixin Wu

temperature in the Fram Strait, but the paper did not examine the effects of ocean data assimilation on the simulation of sea ice. To forecast the Arctic Ocean environment, aiming at an operational implementation of a reliable ice–ocean forecasting system, a pan-Arctic ice–ocean coupled model system was established two years ago at the National Marine Environmental Forecasting Center. The system is based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS; Shchepetkin and McWilliams 2003 , 2005 ; Moore et al

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Régis Borde and Javier García-Pereda

quality indicators . Wea. Forecasting , 13 , 281 – 288 . Menzel, W. P. , Smith W. L. , and Stewart T. R. , 1983 : Improved cloud motion wind vector and altitude assignment using VAS . J. Climate Appl. Meteor. , 22 , 377 – 384 . Schmetz, J. , Holmlund K. , Hoffman J. , Strauss B. , Mason B. , Gaertner V. , Koch A. , and van de Berg L. , 1993 : Operational cloud motion winds from Meteosat infrared images . J. Appl. Meteor. , 32 , 1206 – 1225 . Sohn, E. H. , and Borde R

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Sean B. Ziegeler, James D. Dykes, and Jay F. Shriver

verification: Current status and future directions . Meteor. Appl. , 15 , 3 – 18 . Clark, A. J. , Gallus W. A. Jr. , and Weisman M. L. , 2010 : Neighborhood-based verification of precipitation forecasts from convection-allowing NCAR WRF model simulations and the operational NAM . Wea. Forecasting , 25 , 1495 – 1509 . Crum, W. R. , Hartkens T. , and Hill D. L. G. , 2004 : Non-rigid image registration: Theory and practice . Br. J. Radiol. , 77 , S140 – S153 . Gilleland, E

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Robert J. Zamora, F. Martin Ralph, Edward Clark, and Timothy Schneider

operational goals of the NWS is to provide the most accurate forecasts of flooding that are possible. This is an enormous task that cannot be addressed adequately without accurate “forcing” information, such as QPF and QPE. However, improving and evaluating the performance of the current NWS hydrological models and developing the next generation of physically based hydrological models will also depend upon having accurate observations of soil moisture. Future work in this area should include developing

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Renske M. A. Timmermans, Martijn Schaap, Peter Builtjes, Hendrik Elbern, Richard Siddans, Stephen Tjemkes, and Robert Vautard

this first application of the OSSE principle to aerosol retrievals are discussed. Some results are shown demonstrating the potential of the OSSE system for such applications. However, the encountered issues do not allow an extensive quantitative evaluation of results and consolidation of the requirements. 2. Observing system simulation experiments Generally, observing system experiments (OSEs) are used to assess the impact of existing operational observing systems on, for example, weather forecasts

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Rasmus Lindstrot, Rene Preusker, and Jürgen Fischer

1. Introduction Satellite observations provide an indispensable contribution to the monitoring of the atmosphere, earth, and ocean. Because it is impossible to operationally perform in situ measurements of cloud properties, the spaceborne remote sensing of clouds is of special importance. The methodologies for the retrieval of cloud properties from satellite data have been constantly advanced during the past decades. In the case of the retrieval of cloud altitude, which is representing one of

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Hui Liu, Ying-Hwa Kuo, Sergey Sokolovskiy, Xiaolei Zou, Zhen Zeng, Ling-Feng Hsiao, and Benjamin C. Ruston

assimilation experiments are performed. The only difference between the two is the RO QC scheme. In the first data assimilation experiment, a standard QC procedure (STQC) is applied to RO data. RO refractivity observations are discarded if their departures from WRF 6-h forecasts are larger than one or three times the RO observational errors below or above 4 km, respectively. This STQC is similar to those used in research and operational assimilation systems (e.g., Chen et al. 2011 ; Huang et al. 2016

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Monika Feldmann, Curtis N. James, Marco Boscacci, Daniel Leuenberger, Marco Gabella, Urs Germann, Daniel Wolfensberger, and Alexis Berne

model is generally not necessary. Moreover, mesoscale forecast grids, as opposed to accurate mesoscale analyses of convective precipitation, would be more than sufficient and may be the only option for dealiasing in an operational context. 5. Conclusions The novel dealiasing algorithm R2D2 adequately achieves our objectives of region-based initialization, 4D continuity, mitigated error propagation, improved environmental wind estimates, and suitability for operational implementation in challenging

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Kimberly L. Elmore, Pamela L. Heinselman, and David J. Stensrud

1. Introduction Accurate convective boundary layer (CBL) depth estimates are required by fire weather forecasters ( Clements et al. 2007 ) and when forecasting for air pollution and hazardous materials release ( Dabberdt et al. 2004 ). CBL depth estimates are also important to convective initiation forecasts ( Johnson and Mapes 2001 ; Browning et al. 2007 ) because the CBL depth is related to the strength of the capping inversion. For the various applications noted above, CBL estimates need to

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