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Masataka Shiobara and Shoji Asano

thebroadband solar flux transmittance obtained from observations agreed well with that theoretically expected forcloud optical thickness up to about 10.1. Introduction Cirrus and cirrostratus clouds, which consist of icecrystals and are located in the upper troposphere andare optically thin, play an important role in the earthradiation budget and hence in the earth's climate system. However, we have insufficient knowledge of theirradiative and microphysical properties. Several fieldexperiments to

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Robert W. Bergstrom and James T. Peterson

cosine of the solar zenith angle. Aerosols affect thetransmitted beam by changing the wavelength-dependent optical thickness. The direct beam dependsonly on the aerosol extinction properties and not on theabsorption/scattering ratio.The wavelength integration of Eq. (3) was performedby using the 83 spectral intervals employed by Braslauand Dave (1973). The water vapor, carbon monoxideand ozone transmission data for each interval werealso taken from Braslau and Dave. The surface reflec-tion values

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K. N. Liou, S. C. Ou, Y. Takano, F. P. J. Valero, and T. P. Ackerman

Liou (1986). Accurate mapping of their geometrical and optical properties fromspace, on a global scale, is critically significant to understanding the role of cirrus in climate and climaticperturbations due to various radiative foreings, suchas the anticipated increase in carbon dioxide. Numerous methodologies have been proposed toinfer cirrus information using satellite infrared channels. Liou (1977) presented a method using four wavelengths in the 10/~m window region to determine thecloud

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J. M. Davis, S. K. Cox, and T. B. McKee

listed above have revealed thatcloud shape is more important than cloud microphysical properties in determining the scatteringproperties of optically thick clouds. This realization,combined with the advantages of a laboratory approach given below, provided the motivation for development of the Cloud Field Optical Simulator(CFOS) described below. This article describes thedesign features of the CFOS and provides initial results as verification that it can indeed provide valuable insight into the

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S. C. Ou, K. N. Liou, and T. R. Caudill

water cloud optical depth τ w and droplet radius [(a) τ w = 4, r e = 4 μ m; (b) τ w = 16, r e = 4 μ m; (c) τ w = 4, r e = 8 μ m; and (d) τ w = 16, r e = 8 μ m] based on the prescribed sun-satellite geometry. For cirrus clouds with optical depths greater than 4, the 3.7- μ m reflectances depend on ice crystal sizes only, and they are virtually independent of low-cloud properties. Forcirrus clouds with optical depths less than 4, the 3.7- μ m reflectances are more sensitive to r

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E. O. Schmidt, R. F. Arduini, B. A. Wielicki, R. S. Stone, and S-C. Tsay

many complexities involved. Remote sensing ofthin cirrus via satellites has led to attempts to deriveoptical and microphysical properties. Parameters mostcommonly derived include cloud optical depth, effective particle size, cloud fraction, cloud-top temperature,cloud-top height, and emissivity. Analytic methods Corresponding author address.' Dr. E. O. Schmidt, The AnalyticScience Corp., 55 Walkers Brook Drive, Reading, MA 01867.E-mail: eosehmidt@tasc.comused to derive this information include

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Shaima L. Nasiri, Bryan A. Baum, Andrew J. Heymsfield, Ping Yang, Michael R. Poellot, David P. Kratz, and Yongxiang Hu

Introduction The general approach for inferring cirrus optical and microphysical properties from satellite imagery is to compare measured satellite radiances with the results of radiative transfer calculations for various conditions of viewing geometry, solar illumination, and cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties. With this approach, the retrieved cirrus properties depend on the single-scattering properties of the cirrus models used in the analyses. In turn, the single

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C. M. R. Platt

. Although there are still some uncertainties, particularly regarding the albedo of iceclouds (Stephens, 1980), it is now possible to predictthe bispectral properties of idealized cloud layers withsome confidence. As well as showing the typical curves for differencesin cloud amount and optical depth and for both singleand double cloud layers, the effects on these curvesof variable solar zenith angle and satellite viewingangle are also considered. Some discussion is alsogiven on the effects of infrared

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Keith D. Hutchison, Kenneth R. Hardy, and Bo-Cai Gao

MAY 1995 HUTCHISON ET AL. 1161Improved Detection of Optically Thin Cirrus Clouds in Nighttime MultispectralMeteorological Satellite Imagery Using Total Integrated Water Vapor Information KE1TH D. HUTCHISON* AND KENNETH R. HARDY,'Center./br Remote Environmental Sensing Technology (CREST), Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, lnc (LMSC) Austin Division

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L. H. Chambers, B. A. Wielicki, and N. G. Loeb

Monte Carlo estimates of stratocumulus albedo. J. Atmos. Sci 51 : 3776 – 3790 . Chambers , L. H. 1997 . Computation of the effects of inhomogeneous clouds on retrieval of remotely sensed properties. Preprints, Ninth. Conf. on Atmospheric Radiation, Long Beach, CA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 378–382 . Chambers , L. H. , B. A. Wielicki , and K. F. Evans . 1997 . Accuracy of the independent pixel approximation for satellite estimates of oceanic boundary layer cloud optical depth. J

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