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Nadine Salzmann and Linda O. Mearns

performance of RCM simulations provided within NARCCAP ( Mearns et al. 2009 ) with regard to the seasonal snow regime in the Upper Colorado River basin. This study differs somewhat from “standard” climate model evaluations as it is carried out from a climate model output user’s perspective. In addition to air temperature and precipitation, which are both closely linked to snow parameters, we analyze snow water equivalent (SWE; directly provided by the RCMs) and snow cover duration (derived and defined via

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Claire J. Oswald and Wayne R. Rouse

1. Introduction This research characterizes and compares the thermal characteristics and energy balance of various-size Canadian Shield lakes in the Mackenzie River basin (MRB). Long-term goals are to understand better the impacts of climate change on the surface atmospheric energy exchange, and the role of lakes as high-energy exchange systems in the regional climate. The results of this study may be used to verify surface temperatures from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR

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Michael D. Warner and Clifford F. Mass

1. Introduction Narrow regions of large water vapor transport that extend from the tropics or subtropics into the extratropics, often called atmospheric rivers (ARs), are responsible for the majority of cool-season heavy precipitation events along the North American west coast ( Ralph et al. 2005 , 2006 ; Dettinger 2011 ; Warner et al. 2012 ) and are an important part of the hydrologic cycle in many locations throughout the world (e.g., Dettinger 2004 ; Viale and Nuñez 2011 ; Ralph et al

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Dongnan Jian, Xiucang Li, Hemin Sun, Hui Tao, Tong Jiang, Buda Su, and Heike Hartmann

likely a response to increases in precipitation ( Irmak et al. 2012 ). Wang et al. (2015) found that, out of a range of variables, net radiation and wind speed had a greater influence on pan evaporation in low-elevation regions in the Three-Rivers Source Region, while actual vapor pressure and air temperature had a greater influence in high-elevation regions. To our knowledge, few studies have examined the factors that drive changes in ETa. Existing studies have reported that the decline in the

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Isidora Jankov, Jian-Wen Bao, Paul J. Neiman, Paul J. Schultz, Huiling Yuan, and Allen B. White

1. Introduction Significant precipitation events in California during the winter season are often caused by land-falling “atmospheric rivers” associated with extratropical cyclones from the Pacific Ocean. Atmospheric rivers are narrow, elongated plumes of enhanced water vapor transport over the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans ( Ralph et al. 2004 , 2005 ; Bao et al. 2006 ) that can extend from the tropics and subtropics into the extratropics and are easily identifiable using Special Sensor

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Thomas E. Adams III and Randel Dymond

. The study region in this paper is the forecast area of responsibility of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Weather Service (NWS), Ohio River Forecast Center (OHRFC), shown in Fig. 1 , which is one of thirteen NOAA/NWS River Forecast Centers (RFCs). Single-valued, deterministic QPF is a commonly used model forcing in hydrologic forecasting ( Georgakakos and Hudlow 1984 ; Sokol 2003 ; Adams and Pagano 2016 ; Li et al. 2017 ) and used by all NWS RFCs. Research

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Yangyang Li, Yingxin Zhu, Lei Chen, and Zhenyao Shen

1. Introduction The Three Gorges Dam (TGD), the world’s largest dam, was completed and began storing water in 2003. Large dams disrupt river continuity and unavoidably induce alterations in flow, sediment, and water temperature regimes ( Chen et al. 2016 ; Li et al. 2011 ; Syvitski et al. 2005 ; Wang et al. 2016 ). With the construction of the TGD, considerable attention has been focused on how the dam impacts the river regime, especially the environment downstream in the middle and lower

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Omar V. Müller, Pier Luigi Vidale, Benoît Vannière, Reinhard Schiemann, and Patrick C. McGuire

Abstract

Previous studies showed that high-resolution GCMs overestimate land precipitation when compared against observation-based data. Particularly, high-resolution HadGEM3-GC3.1 shows a significant precipitation increase in mountainous regions, where the scarcity of gauge stations increases the uncertainty of gridded observations and reanalyses. This work evaluates such precipitation uncertainties indirectly through the assessment of river discharge, considering that an increase of ~10% in land precipitation produces ~28% more runoff when the resolution is enhanced from 1° to 0.25°, and ~50% of the global runoff is produced in 27% of global land dominated by mountains. We diagnosed the river flow by routing the runoff generated by HadGEM3-GC3.1 low- and high-resolution simulations. The river flow is evaluated using a set of 344 monitored catchments distributed around the world. We also infer the global discharge by constraining the simulations with observations following a novel approach that implies bias correction in monitored rivers with two methods, and extension of the correction to the river mouth, and along the coast. Our global discharge estimate is 47.4±1.6×103 km 3 yr −1, which is closer to the original high-resolution estimate (50.5 × 103 km 3 yr −1) than to the low-resolution (39.6 × 103 km 3 yr −1). The assessment suggests that high-resolution simulations performbetter in mountainous regions, either because the better-defined orography favours the placement of precipitation in the correct catchment, leading to a more accurate distribution of runoff, or the orographic precipitation increases, reducing the dry runoff bias of coarse resolution simulations. However, high-resolution slightly increases wet biases in catchments dominated by flat terrain. The improvement of model parameterizations and tuning may reduce the remaining errors in high-resolution simulations.

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Thomas Fischer, Buda Su, Yong Luo, and Thomas Scholten

from extreme climate events and other natural disasters increased in recent decades because of the fast-growing population and industrialization in major river basins in China ( Feng et al. 2007 ). The intensity and frequency of these extremes have been analyzed in several studies on climate change in China and at the global scale (Ding et al. 2007; Trenberth et al. 2007 ; Klein Tank et al. 2009 ). For the climate and weather extremes in south China, the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and the

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Biljana Music and Daniel Caya

understanding, measurement, and modeling of water and energy cycles within the climate system at the continental scale has been undertaken within the framework of Continental-Scale Experiments (CSEs) of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Hydrometeorological Panel (HP). GEWEX initiated the Continental-Scale International Project (GCIP) in the early 1990s. The goals of GCIP were to understand the hydrology and water balance of the Mississippi River basin ( Robock 2003 ). GCIP has recently

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