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Tobias Kukulka and Fabrice Veron

gravity waves on OSBL turbulence. One challenge in modeling and understanding OSBL turbulence is the influence of surface gravity waves. The Stokes drift due to nonbreaking surface gravity waves interacts with the turbulent currents to drive Langmuir turbulence (LT). Such wave–current interactions are described by the Craik–Leibovich equations that include Craik–Leibovich wave forcing generating LT through the so-called Craik–Leibovich type 2 (CL2) mechanism ( Craik and Leibovich 1976 ). Enhancing

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E. P. Dever

, there is a deep basin of about 600-m depth and 50 km wide. The eastern entrance to the channel is relatively constricted with a width of 20 km and a maximum sill depth of 200 m. The abrupt change in coastline orientation at Point Conception causes a large-scale difference in the wind field between the central California coast and the Southern California Bight ( Dorman and Winant 2000 ). Strong equatorward wind forcing often occurs in the SMB and at the western entrance to the SBC. The wind stress is

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Hai Pan, Roni Avissar, and Dale B. Haidvogel

terms in the momentum equations were ignored, but the Coriolis terms were retained. In comparison with the Coriolis terms, the advection terms may not be negligible because the lake, which has a complex topography, is small and the meteorological conditions over the lake have large spatial and temporal variations. As will be explained later, the effects of planetary rotation appear to be exaggerated in these models. Dynamically, when a lake is driven by a specific meteorological forcing, the role of

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Ping-Tung Shaw and G. T. Csanady

of propagation of a dense water blob isto have shallow water on the right- (left-) hand side facing downstream in the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere. The propagation of a light water blob is opposite to that of a dense water blob. The problem is further investigated by solving the governing equations numerically. Under forcing bylocalized surface cooling, the flow in the mid-shelf region shows the characteristics of the solution of Burgers'equation. A coastal buoyancy source generates a shore

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Dake Chen, Lewis M. Rothstein, and Antonio J. Busalacchi

, which allows the mixed layer to deepenuntil the bulk Richardson number exceeds a criticalvalue (e.g., Pollard et al. 1973 ). The former model hasnothing to do with the mean flow; the direct wind stirring is the major source for the turbulent kinetic energy.The latter model, on the other hand, depends uponmean flow shear instability to supply the turbulent energy; the surface wind forcing plays a role only throughinertial motions within the mixed layer. Mixed layershallowing (detrainment) in a bulk

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A. Basovich

, is on the large-scale LC observed in the ocean. The current theoretical description of LC is based on the Craik–Leibovich model ( Craik and Leibovich 1976 ; Leibovich 1977 , 1980 ; Leibovich and Paolucci 1981 ; Leibovich 1983 ; Phillips 2002 , 2005 ). The Craik–Leibovich model introduced the vortex force, which is the average force imposed by surface waves on a nonuniform current ( Craik and Leibovich 1976 ; Garrett 1976 ; Leibovich 1977 ; Andrews and McIntyre 1978 ). The model is used

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Edward W. Doddridge, David P. Marshall, and Andrew McC. Hogg

; Marshall 1997 ; Marshall and Radko 2003 ). The similarities between the Ferrel cell in the atmosphere and the Deacon cell in the Southern Ocean have been explored previously. For example, Karoly et al. (1997) showed that both the Ferrel and Deacon cells are the result of correlations between zonal variations in density and meridional flow, not zonal mean buoyancy forcing. This means that if the averaging is performed using density as the vertical coordinate, neither circulation cell is apparent

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T. P. Barnett

thenorthern edge of the region (42-N) in the winter,This lack of hydrostatic stability, particularly in thewinter, thus offers the local (seasonal) forcing, e.g.,cooling and mixing, the opportunity to affect greaterdepths than at other latitudes. The same type ofreasoning may apply to 36-N, near the southernboundary of the transition zone. Around thislatitude, as near 42-N, there appears generally toexist little or no vertical salinity gradient. Again,small salinity stratification may be the major

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Wei Chen, Michael L. Banner, Edward J. Walsh, Jorgen B. Jensen, and Sunhee Lee

(80 km). A full description of the experiment, associated instrumentation, and mean flow results is given in Banner et al. (1999 , henceforth SI). In the present paper, we report on the coupled variability among the wind field, wind forcing, and sea surface roughness. 2. Structure of the wind field in the marine boundary layer a. Atmospheric roll vortices Atmospheric roll vortices are large-scale helical circulations in the MABL seen frequently in satellite pictures as elongated cloud streaks

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Tracy Haack, Dudley Chelton, Julie Pullen, James D. Doyle, and Michael Schlax

that air–sea coupling becomes evident with averaging of 10 days or more. Much of the variability in the wind stress is on shorter daily or weekly time scales driven by diurnal and synoptic forcing; however, the emphasis here is on longer time scales on which SST forcing is the dominant mechanism for small-scale variability in the surface wind field. The high-resolution model fields are also exploited to address some of the limitations in CSS07 . The monthly mean of the COAMPS SST analysis at 9-km

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