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Andrew S. Jones, Ingrid C. Guch, and Thomas H. Vonder Haar

1. Introduction In the companion paper ( Jones et al. 1998 ) a method was described to assimilate satellite-derived infrared heating rates into a mesoscale atmospheric model to retrieve model soil moisture. The method includes explicit components for bare soil, shaded soil, vegetation, and water surfaces. One-dimensional tests of the method were used as pedagogical examples to explain the method and to better understand the important physical mechanisms related to the method

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Benjamin C. Trabing and Michael M. Bell

modes of tropical upward motion . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 46 , 2911 – 2921 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GL081806 . 10.1029/2018GL081806 Ruppert , J. H. , and M. E. O’Neill , 2019 : Diurnal cloud and circulation changes in simulated tropical cyclones . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 46 , 502 – 511 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GL081302 . 10.1029/2018GL081302 Ruppert , J. H. , A. A. Wing , X. Tang , and E. L. Duran , 2020 : The critical role of cloud–infrared radiation feedback in

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HERBERT H. KIMBALL

MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW Editor, EDGAR W. WOOLARDVOL. 64, No. 1W. B. No. 1173 JANUARY 1936 CLOSED MARCH 3, 1936 ISSVED APRIL 8. 1936DETERMINATIONS OF ATMOSPHERIC TURBIDITY AND WATER VAPOR CONTENTBy HERBERT H. KIMBALL[Research .4ssociate, Blue Hill Meteorological Observatory of Harvard University]In.troduction.-Early in 1931, at a meeting of the com- mission on solar radiation of the section of meteorology, International Geodetic and Geophysical Union, in Potsdam and Berlin, Germany, after a

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Vincent E. Larson, Kurt E. Kotenberg, and Norman B. Wood

participants can easily implement the same radiative formula. Second, LESs usually last 6 h or less, a period too short to heat or cool clear air significantly, thereby vitiating the advantage of accurate multiband radiative calculations for gaseous absorption. Third, an analytic longwave formula is computationally inexpensive. This is advantageous because considerable expense is associated with both LES and numerical radiation calculations. LES is expensive because it requires a small grid size (often

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David P. Duda and Patrick Minnis

difference between the channel 4 (10.7 μ m) infrared brightness temperature ( T 10.7 ) and the channel 5 (12.0 μ m) split-window brightness temperature ( T 12.0 ) was used to enhance the contrast between the distrails and the surrounding cloud. The distrails tended to lower the brightness temperature difference between these channels as the fall streak particles in the center of the distrail are larger than the particles in the surrounding cloud layer [see Minnis et al. (1998) for plots of T 10

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Steven M. Cavallo and Gregory J. Hakim

. , 129 , 569 – 585 . Chen , F. , and J. Dudhia , 2001b : Coupling an advanced land surface–hydrology model with the Penn State–NCAR MM5 modeling system. Part II: Preliminary model validation. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 129 , 587 – 604 . Chou , M-D. , and M. J. Suarez , 1994 : An efficient thermal infrared radiation parameterization for use in general circulation models. NASA Tech. Memo. 104606, 85 pp . Curry , J. A. , 1983 : On the formation of continental polar air. J. Atmos. Sci

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C. T. Gordon

be nonblack in the infrared. Also,the C-CM radiative cooling rates of Randall et al. (1989)were quite sensitive to modifications in their parameterization of cirrus clouds. Simulations of cloudinessand the earth radiation budget by climate GCMs have Corresponding author address: Dr. C. T. Gordon, NOAA/ERL,Princeton University, Forrestal Campus, Route 1, P.O. Box 308,Princeton, NJ 08542.been discussed by Harshvardhan et al. (1989), Slingoet al. (1989), and others. Herman et al. (1980

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H. L. Kuo and Y. F. Qian

~, infrared radiation -mand convective transfer and latent heat e~, C is therate of reduction of the mixing ratio due to largescale or convective condensation processes, 6'm isthe a-vertical velocity on the f = 0.5 surface, andPGF~ and PGFu are the x and y components of thepressure gradient force PGF. The equations for thetop layers 1 and 2 in p coordinates, and the boundFIG. 2. Distributions of the 10-year (1961-70) mean 600 mb level geopotential height at 0600 LST, 90-E, for July.NOVEMaEg 1981

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'ateCommission of Forestry, Columbia, May 1968, 18 pp.Ramsey, W. T., and Alishouse, J. C., ``A Comparison of InfraredSources," Infrared Physics, 1'01. 8, Pergamon Press, Osford,Relyea, C. hl., "River Forecasting," Proceedings of the IBMScientific Computing Symposium on Ii-aier and Air ResourceAanagement, October 23-25, 1967, Thomas J. Waken ResearchCenter, Yorktown Heights, S.T., 1967, pp. 63-79.Slade, D. H., "Modeling Air Pollution in the Washingt,on, D.C., toBoston, llegalopolis," Proceedings of the CTSAEC

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G. M. JURICA

.Ikan 0. Staley for his assistance and guithncc. in the prepamtionof this paper. Gratitude is also extcndcd to Dr. Benjamin M.Herman for his helpful discussions on atmospheric mdiationprocesses.REFERENCES1. D. L. Brooks, "A Tabuhr Xlethod for thc: Computation of Temperature Changc. by Infrared Radiation in the, Free At,mosphere," Journal of Meteorology, vol. i, No. 5, Oct. 1950,2. F. A. Brooks, "Observations of Atmosphcric Radiation," Papers in Physical Oceanography and Meteorology, Masm- chusetts

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