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W. Kendall Melville, Luc Lenain, Daniel R. Cayan, Mati Kahru, Jan P. Kleissl, P. F. Linden, and Nicholas M. Statom

aligned in the northeast–southwest direction. These are believed to be the surface signatures of Langmuir circulation (or Langmuir turbulence) that are approximately aligned with the wind and the direction of dominant wave propagation. (b),(c) Evolution of the omnidirectional wavenumber spectrum as the aircraft flew across the Loop Current. The color scale represents the average SST over the length of the wave record (4 km) used in the spectral analysis, also shown as a function of latitude in (b). d

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Jin Wu

within the interface layer and wesuggest various effects of breaking waves producingthese structures. Dominant sizes of bubbles in thecloud, layer, and plume are also discussed. Most of theprocesses discussed herein are completed within a fewperiods of breaking waves; subsequently, Langmuir Corresponding author address: Jin Wu, Air-Sea Interaction Laboratory, Graduate College of Marine Studies, University of Delaware,Lewes, DE 19958.circulation is believed to be also active to redistributebubbles

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Guoqiang Liu, William Perrie, and Colin Hughes

layer: Langmuir circulations, breaking waves, and Reynolds stress . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 42 , 1793 – 1816 , doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-12-07.1 . 10.1175/JPO-D-12-07.1 Miles , J. W. , 1957 : On the generation of surface waves by shear flows . J. Fluid Mech. , 3 , 185 – 204 , doi: 10.1017/S0022112057000567 . 10.1017/S0022112057000567 Miles , J. W. , 1962 : On the generation of surface waves by shear flows. Part 4 . J. Fluid Mech. , 13 , 433 – 448 , doi: 10.1017/S0022112062000828 . 10.1017/S

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Len Zedel

Langmuir circulation, air-sea momentum and gasexchange, and wave breaking. A supplementary observation required for any of these studies is the surfacewave condition prevailing at the time of the acousticobservations. An obvious way to acquire wave-heightdata for such acoustically based studies is to use vertically oriented sonar to measure local sea surface elevations directly: this can be achieved by recording atime series of surface range estimates. Thorpe and Hall(1983) noted the possibility for

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Jihai Dong, Baylor Fox-Kemper, Hong Zhang, and Changming Dong

1. Introduction The ocean surface mixed layer (SML) is of significance for air–sea energy and material exchanges. Different processes, including surface waves, Langmuir circulation, vertical convection, and submesoscale processes are capable of changing thermodynamic and kinetic structures of the SML, filtering and modulating air–sea exchanges (e.g., Large et al. 1994 ; Melville 1996 ; Qiao et al. 2004 ; Thorpe 2004 ; Fox-Kemper et al. 2008 ; Belcher et al. 2012 ; Li and Fox-Kemper 2017

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Juan M. Restrepo and Jorge M. Ramirez

destabilizing effect of the waves on currents in the CL theory forms the conceptual basis for the generation of Langmuir circulation, later generalized in McWilliams et al. (1997) to describe what is now known as Langmuir turbulence (see Teixeira and Belcher 2010 ). The CL theory was extended to capture the wave-driven circulation, in McWilliams and Restrepo (1999) and forms the basis for a shallow-water conservative dynamic of waves and currents ( McWilliams et al. 2004 ). This work is concerned with

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Chris Garrett, Ming Li, and David Farmer

toward smaller radii even at small radii, suggesting that some small bubbles are, in fact, produced during the injection process. The differences in the size spectra between depths may be associated with the range of injection depths, with a depth-dependent dissolution rate and the effects of surface contamination, and with other neglected processes such as Langmuir circulation and turbulent diffusion. These last two processes are, in fact, likely to have been responsible for the presence of bubbles

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Jacob O. Wenegrat and Michael J. McPhaden

.-H. Moeng , 1997 : Langmuir turbulence in the ocean . J. Fluid Mech. , 334 , 1 – 30 , doi: 10.1017/S0022112096004375 . McWilliams , J. C. , E. Huckle , and A. F. Shchepetkin , 2009 : Buoyancy effects in a stratified Ekman layer . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 39 , 2581 – 2599 , doi: 10.1175/2009JPO4130.1 . McWilliams , J. C. , E. Huckle , J.-H. Liang , and P. P. Sullivan , 2012 : The wavy Ekman layer: Langmuir circulations, breaking waves, and Reynolds stress . J. Phys. Oceanogr

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Nirnimesh Kumar and Falk Feddersen

across the inner shelf is often due to a nonzero, mean, cross-shore Lagrangian circulation in the vertical z and cross-shore x plane, where the mean, cross-shore Lagrangian velocity is the sum of the mean Eulerian velocity and the onshore, wave-driven Stokes drift (e.g., Lentz and Fewings 2012 ). In particular, for inner-shelf weak vertical mixing (e.g., weak winds) and weak lateral variations, a Stokes–Coriolis balance (e.g., Xu and Bowen 1994 ; Lentz et al. 2008 ) develops: where f

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Per B. Storebø

, thenthe ratio between the deposited quantities of the particle types isD1 u-N,Dz b.Nbexp [ - (a - b)t].(2)_ - -.The initial deposition will consequently show an excess of the particles most easily brought down, theposition being reversed later on.This effect will not appear over an area with aclosed air-mass circulation with even or arbitrarilydistributed precipitation, because all debris broughtdown into clouds must be deposited eventually. Theair concentration of the more slowly captured

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