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Felipe Quintero, Witold F. Krajewski, Ricardo Mantilla, Scott Small, and Bong-Chul Seo

-D-14-0105.1 . Lo Conti, F. , Hsu K.-L. , Noto L. V. , and Sorooshian S. , 2014 : Evaluation and comparison of satellite precipitation estimates with reference to a local area in the Mediterranean Sea . Atmos. Res. , 138 , 189 – 204 , doi: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2013.11.011 . Maggioni, V. , Reichle R. H. , and Anagnostou E. N. , 2011 : The effect of satellite rainfall error modeling on soil moisture prediction uncertainty . J. Hydrometeor. , 12 , 413 – 428 , doi: 10.1175/2011JHM

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Mutlu Ozdogan, Guido D. Salvucci, and Bruce T. Anderson

hydrologic cycle as well as low-level monsoon winds over the southwestern United States. Brenner (2000) also report good agreement between RSM-simulated and observed surface wind speed in the eastern Mediterranean region. Below, the model results, meteorological data, and recalibrated Penman potential evaporation equation, as well as the CR, are evaluated for the irrigated plains over southeastern Turkey. a. Complementary relationship within calibrated Penman equation Figure 4a shows the trend in

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Giuseppe Mascaro

deviation across all stations. c. Diurnal cycle Rainfall in the NAM region is characterized by the presence of a strong diurnal cycle during the monsoon season resulting from the combined effect of humidity transported by sea breeze, orographic effect, and ground heating during the day ( Balling and Brazel 1987 ; Maddox et al. 1995 ; Gochis et al. 2004 ; Gebremichael et al. 2007 ; Wall et al. 2012 ; Mascaro et al. 2014 ). Following Dai (2001) and Gebremichael et al. (2007) , to quantify the

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Morteza Sadeghi, Ardeshir Ebtehaj, Wade T. Crow, Lun Gao, Adam J. Purdy, Joshua B. Fisher, Scott B. Jones, Ebrahim Babaeian, and Markus Tuller

. Remote Sens. , 39 , 1729 – 1735 , https://doi.org/10.1109/36.942551 . 10.1109/36.942551 Konikow , L. F. , 2011 : Contribution of global groundwater depletion since 1900 to sea-level rise . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 38 , L17401 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL048604 . 10.1029/2011GL048604 Koster , R. D. , L. Brocca , W. T. Crow , M. S. Burgin , and G. J. De Lannoy , 2016 : Precipitation estimation using L-band and C-band soil moisture retrievals . Water Resour. Res. , 52 , 7213

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Manabendra Saharia, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, Humberto Vergara, Jonathan J. Gourley, Yang Hong, and Marine Giroud

the Mediterranean and decrease in intensity as one moves inland ( Gaume et al. 2009 ). Furthermore, they find that the seasonality of the inland, continental flash floods tends to be in the warm season months, while those closer to the Mediterranean Sea typically occur in autumn months. Until recently, the lack of a comprehensive database that catalogs information related to flash flood timing, location, and severity such as the causative rainfall and basin geomorphology have hindered broad

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Islem Hajji, Daniel F. Nadeau, Biljana Music, François Anctil, and Jingfeng Wang

characteristics of the test sites. Parameter z g represents the elevation above mean sea level, z c is the mean canopy height, P is the mean annual precipitation, and ET is the mean annual evapotranspiration. Koppen climate classes are humid continental (Dfa), humid subtropical (Cfa), Mediterranean (Csa), and semiarid climate (Bsk). To characterize each site in terms of its mean limiting factors for ET, namely, available energy “demand” (net radiation) and water “supply” (precipitation), the

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Han Zhou, Wen Zhou, Yuanbo Liu, Yanbin Yuan, Jiejun Huang, and Yongwei Liu

-Stations schemes. The comparison includes spatial coordinates, (a) longitude and (b) latitude, and (c) the mean drought severity, as well as (d) the number of stations and the number of drought modes. c. The possible role of spatial modes to understand the development of droughts Meteorological droughts (or precipitation deficit) are regional in nature and occur over almost all climatic zones ( Mishra and Singh 2010 ; Rajsekhar et al. 2013 ), which are generally caused by anomalous sea surface temperatures

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June K. Yeung, James A. Smith, Mary Lynn Baeck, and Gabriele Villarini

urban flash floods in Baltimore, Maryland; that the regional occurrence of flash flooding was linked to the intensity of the thunderstorm systems [represented as a regional cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flash density]; and that organized thunderstorms producing flash floods in Baltimore exhibited characteristic life cycles involving storm initiation over the eastern margin of the central Appalachians and interaction of storm systems with sea breeze and bay breeze circulations. In a recent study

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Jee-Hoon Jeong, Chang-Hoi Ho, Deliang Chen, and Tae-Won Park

over land areas. These differences demonstrate the problem of using CAM3 to drive an LSM, particularly for surface fluxes. The most notable features are warm and dry biases over northern Eurasia, Canada, East Asia, India, the Middle East, and the Sahara Desert, and relatively cold and wet biases over America, South America, and the coastal region around the Mediterranean Sea ( Figs. 1a and 1c ). Overall, there is a dry bias over the major precipitation zones and a wet bias over many arid or desert

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Ethan Gutmann, Idar Barstad, Martyn Clark, Jeffrey Arnold, and Roy Rasmussen

Thompson microphysics and with variations in the linear dynamics. A map of the domain is shown in Fig. 5 ; covering this domain with 4-km-wide grid cells results in a grid that is 318 and 264 grid points in the x and y dimensions, respectively. The WRF domain used 44 vertical layers ranging in thickness from 36 m at the surface to greater than 500 m at higher altitudes. The top of the WRF domain was specified at 100 hPa, approximately 16 km above sea level. The ICAR domain used 14 vertical layers

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