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Robert S. Fraser

given here for two nonindustrial, continental sites that are near sea level.In general these parameters will depend on climatologyand should be obtained for other places. The eigenvalue analysis discussed here accountsonly for the covariance properties of the opticalthickness. There are other correlations among additional optical parameters which are not examined.These include the correlations among the particulatescattering phase function, index of refraction, andalso optical thickness. The

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Kathrin Wapler and Bernhard Mayer

from the 3D cloud information to columns that can be used as input to a standard 1D radiative transfer code, the distribution of optical properties along individual rays is translated to a vertical column where the 3D grid boxes are translated to layers, the thickness of which reflects the pathlength in each 3D grid box. Using this atmosphere as input to a 1D model, the direct irradiance is calculated exactly but the diffuse irradiance is approximated, because horizontally infinite layers are

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Masataka Shiobara, James D. Spinhirne, Akihiro Uchiyama, and Shoji Asano

. A. Reagan, 1978: Aerosol size distributions obtained by inversion of spectral optical depth measurements. J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 2153-2167.Kinne, S., R. Bergstrom, T. P. Ackerman, A. J. Heymsfield, J. DeLuisi, M. Shiobara, P. Pilewskie, F. P. J. Valero, and Y. Tak ano, 1994: Cirrus cloud solar radiative properties: Comparisons between theory and observations based measurements during FIRE'91. Preprints, Eighth Conf on Atmospheric Radiation, Nashville, TN, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 238

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Shouguo Ding, Ping Yang, Bryan A. Baum, Andrew Heidinger, and Thomas Greenwald

development of the CKD method. Section 3 briefly describes the single-scattering properties of the ice particles and the development of the bulk scattering properties of ice clouds. Section 4 describes the establishment of the ABI solar ice cloud radiance simulator. In section 5 , the simulator is exercised using the collocated MERRA atmospheric profiles and retrieved effective particle size and optical thickness as inputs, and the resulting radiances are compared with those measured from the MODIS

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Y. Fouquart, B. Bonnel, M. Chaoui Roquai, R. Santer, and A. Cerf

dynamic effect by heating the atmosphere and cooling the surface, thus stabilizing thetemperature lapse rate (Carlson and Benjamin, 1980).In order to evaluate this possible climatic impact, oneneeds to know the spatial and temporal extension ofdust hazes, the concentration and optical properties ofSahelian aerosols, and the synoptic conditions associated with dry haze. The spatial and temporal extension of dust hazes can only be inferred from satellitemeasurements associated with well

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Shaima L. Nasiri and Brian H. Kahn

2001 ; Randall et al. 2003 ). Wielicki et al. (1995) list seven sets of cloud observations that are necessary to monitor cloud–climate feedbacks and to improve climate-model parameterizations of cloud formation, dissipation, and radiative effects: liquid water path, visible optical depth, particle size, particle phase and shape, fractional coverage, temperature and height, and infrared emittance. Cloud particle thermodynamic phase is an important retrieval property in its own right, but its

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Bryan A. Baum, Ping Yang, Shaima Nasiri, Andrew K. Heidinger, Andrew Heymsfield, and Jun Li

1. Introduction Models of ice-cloud bulk microphysical and single-scattering properties are essential to perform realistic radiative transfer calculations. Such calculations may be used, for example, in remote sensing applications for the inference of optical thickness and effective particle size, in numerical cloud-resolving models, or in general circulation models. The bulk properties include effective diameter D eff or median mass diameter D m , ice water content (IWC), extinction and

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Makoto Kuji, Tadahiro Hayasaka, Nobuyuki Kikuchi, Teruyuki Nakajima, and Masayuki Tanaka

Introduction Clouds play a crucial role in the earth’s climate, particularly in its global energy budget and water circulation. It therefore is important to understand optical, microphysical, and liquid water properties. Data remotely sensed by satellites are very useful for observation of clouds that have great spatial and temporal variations on both global and regional scales. Studies on the retrieval of the cloud optical thickness and the effective particle radius using airborne or

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Norman G. Loeb, Natividad Manalo-Smith, Seiji Kato, Walter F. Miller, Shashi K. Gupta, Patrick Minnis, and Bruce A. Wielicki

identification One of the major advances in CERES–TRMM is the availability of coincident high-spatial-and-spectral-resolution VIRS measurements. Previous studies (e.g., Loeb et al. 2000 ; Manalo-Smith and Loeb 2001 ) have demonstrated that changes in the physical and optical properties of a scene have a strong influence on the anisotropy of the radiation at the TOA. Ignoring these effects results in large TOA-flux errors ( Chang et al. 2000 ). The following sections provide a brief overview of the CERES

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Chen Zhou, Ping Yang, Andrew E. Dessler, Yongxiang Hu, and Bryan A. Baum

1. Introduction In current satellite-based retrievals of ice cloud optical thickness and effective particle size, bulk single-scattering properties of ice clouds are used to simulate the reflectance and transmission characteristics over a range of cloud microphysical conditions. These bulk properties are used to build a static lookup table that is used with satellite observations in the implementation of a retrieval algorithm ( Platnick et al. 2003 ; Minnis et al. 2011 ). In the forward light

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