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Tracy Haack, Dudley Chelton, Julie Pullen, James D. Doyle, and Michael Schlax

that air–sea coupling becomes evident with averaging of 10 days or more. Much of the variability in the wind stress is on shorter daily or weekly time scales driven by diurnal and synoptic forcing; however, the emphasis here is on longer time scales on which SST forcing is the dominant mechanism for small-scale variability in the surface wind field. The high-resolution model fields are also exploited to address some of the limitations in CSS07 . The monthly mean of the COAMPS SST analysis at 9-km

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Zhongxiang Zhao, Eric A. D’Asaro, and Jeffrey A. Nystuen

bubbles become too large to be stable and are fragmented by the ambient turbulence ( Garrett et al. 2000 ). The mechanisms of sound generation at these frequencies are not well known, but may involve the collective oscillations of bubble clouds excited by breaking waves ( Carey and Bradley 1985 ; Prosperetti 1985 ). These, and the off resonant effects of smaller bubbles, can be important for absorption at these frequencies. Bubbles can act as tracers of vertical exchange as they are advected by

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Stefan Rahmstorf and Jürgen Willebrand

of the temperature feedback with the atmosphere.2. Thermal forcing of ocean modelsa. Parameterizations of surface heat fiux As a first step to go beyond simply prescribing aconstant heat flux at the ocean surface, we can assumethis heat flux Q to be dependent on sea surface temperature To. Taking this dependency to be linear, wecan write Q = Qo + 3,( TA - To).In this form, the second term represents those heat fluxcomponents that depend on the air-sea temperaturedifference ( TA - To

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Jérôme Cuny, Peter B. Rhines, Friedrich Schott, and John Lazier

winter, cold outbreaks from the Canadian Arctic create very large air–sea heat fluxes over the ice-free waters of the Labrador Sea. This triggers instability in the water column, and thus vertical mixing within short-lived plumes. Labrador Sea Water (LSW) is formed through this convection process. The convection depth and the area affected by convection vary interannually ( Lazier et al. 2002 ) because of the variability in forcing and preconditioning of the water column. The preconditioning, that is

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C. E. Coulman

., 1975: Synoptic studies of transients in the Florida Current. J. Mar. Res., 33, 53-73.--, C. N. K. Mooers and T. N. Lee, 1977: Low-frequency variability in the Florida Current and relations to atmospheric forcing from 1972 to 1974. J. Mar. Res., 35, 129-161.Kielmann, J., and W. Diiing, 1974: Tidal and sub-inertial fluctua tions in the Florida Current. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 4,227-236.Munk, W. H., and D. E. Cartwright, 1966: Tidal spectroscopyand prediction. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, 259

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David Rubenstein

APRIL 1994 R UBENSTEIN 819A Spectral Model of Wind-Forced Internal Waves DAVID RUBENSTEINScience Applications International Corp., McLean, Virginia(Manuscript received 25 June 1993, in final form 14 September 1993)ABSTRACT It is hypothesized that wind forcing is a dominant generator of internal waves. A linear model is derived forthe transfer of wind stress into vertical motions associated with

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Stephen G. Monismith, Amatzia Genin, Matthew A. Reidenbach, Gitai Yahel, and Jeffrey R. Koseff

from and to the reef. However, in many reef systems, Eulerian mean currents are weak [e.g., Kaneohe Bay away from the reef crest; see Falter (2003) ] or, excepting a few well-defined channels, are parallel to reef topography. Mechanisms for cross-shore exchange, that is, exchange between the reef and the adjoining ocean, include forcing by surface and internal waves (e.g., Munk et al. 1949 ; Leichter et al. 1996 ), divergence of longshore flows by variations in roughness ( Gross and Werner 1994

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Ke Chen, Peter Gaube, and Enric Pallàs-Sanz

. 2017 ). There are 60 vertical layers in the model with higher resolution near the surface and bottom in order to better resolve ocean boundary layers. The vertical mixing scheme is a k -profile parameterization (KPP; Large et al. 1994 ). Bottom stress was calculated using a quadratic method with a drag coefficient of 0.003. To eliminate the reflection of waves generated by the local processes, for example, Rossby adjustment and wind forcing, radiation open boundary conditions, and sponge zones

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Charles C. Eriksen

associated with disturbances in tropospheric circulationthat meteorologists call "intraseasonal oscillations" or"30 to 60-day waves." Nakazawa (1988) demonstratesthat cloud superclusters that are manifestations of intraseasonal oscillations carry behind them anomalouswesterly winds, particularly evident between the Indonesian amhipelago and the international date line. A particular westerly wind burst seems even to haveplayed a role in the course of history. While the occurrence of sudden westerly

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Mark T. DiBattista and Andrew J. Majda

and Marshall (1993) and Legg et al. (1996) the heton model is used to investigate the short-term generation and maintenance of a “convection chimney” produced by surface cooling within a localized domain. These studies find that, within a few days, a rough balance is established in the cooling region between buoyancy lost at the surface and buoyancy gained internally through the lateral propagation of heton clouds outside the region of localized forcing. These ejected heton clouds are composed

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