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SYNOPSISTreated statically, solar and sky radiation measurements pertain to meteorology and climatology; while investigations into the variations of these two components and the causes thereof pertain to geophysics, astrophysics, and astronomy.It is partly due to this division of interest in the problem, partly to lack of suitable measuring apparatus, and partly to lack of appreciation of the many practical applications of the results, that solar and sky radiation measurements have heretofore

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John C. Price

smallApplications Explorer satellite launched 26 April1978, has obtained data suitable for heat islandstudies. The satellite acquires high-resolutionthermal infrared (10.$-12.$/~m) data from an orbitespecially selected to infer surface temperaturesnear the time of day of the diurnal maximum. Although surface temperatures estimated from a radiation measurement are not the same as air temperatures, they are potentially as useful because theyprovide an indication of the surface heating effectNOVEMBER 1979

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Cecilia Girz Griffith, William Lee Woodley, Pamela G. Grube, David W. Martin, John Stout, and Dhirendra N. Sikdar

. Stewart for the variousgroundtruth data and C. Arnhols, D. Martin, S.Michalover, J. A. Mijares, B. Vargas and C. True, whocontributed to .the completion of the manuscript.Lastly, thanks are extended to the reviewers for theirsuggestions. APPENDIX A Standardization of Infrared Photographs The normalization of visible data has been treatedin Griffith et al. (1976), and the digital infrared datarequire no normalization for geometry because thesensed radiation is emitted heat. The hard

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Qiong Yang, Muyin Wang, James E. Overland, Wanqiu Wang, and Thomas W. Collow

et al. 2016 ). The overestimation in surface air temperature was attributed to the insufficient presence of clouds that caused excessive downwelling solar radiation at the surface during summer and heated up the open water too quickly. The insufficient cloud cover is mostly due to the disabling of the marine stratus cloud scheme in the CFSv2 operational mode because its use together with the easterly wind bias in the tropical Pacific in the atmospheric component of the model causes a large sea

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energy that reaches the surface of the earth, together withthe extent of the range to which the human eye is sensi-tive and which is commonly termed zisible radiation. The figure shows the way in which the position of the maximumintensity shifts from the ultraviolet to the infrared withDECEMBER 1937 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW 431increase in air mass; because of this shift, the ratio of totalsolar and sky radiation to the visible component of this total radiation undergoes large variat

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Vladimir M. Krasnopolsky, Michael S. Fox-Rabinovitz, and Dmitry V. Chalikov

. Chevallier , F. , and J-F. Mahfouf , 2001 : Evaluation of the Jacobians of infrared radiation models for variational data assimilation. J. Appl. Meteor , 40 , 1445 – 1461 . Chevallier , F. , F. Chéruy , N. A. Scott , and A. Chédin , 1998 : A neural network approach for a fast and accurate computation of longwave radiative budget. J. Appl. Meteor , 37 , 1385 – 1397 . Chevallier , F. , J-J. Morcrette , F. Chéruy , and N. A. Scott , 2000 : Use of a neural

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Aaron Kennedy and Carl Jones

blowing snow plumes to modify outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) as documented by Yang et al. (2014) . Although blowing snow plumes across the northern tier of the CONUS have been recognized by the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) satellite blog ( Bachmeier 1997 , 2019 ), and in forecasting tutorials ( UCAR 2004 ), formal publications documenting these events are sparse. In Kennedy et al. (2019) , false-color imagery using the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer

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L. P. Stearns

ABSTRACT The infrared layer temperature change in a cloudy atmosphere normally shows warming at the base ofthe cloud and intense cooling at the top of the cloud. In a model that uses broad-band radiative transfer tocalculate atmospheric temperature changes, errors on the order of 6.0 K day-~ can occur at the top of acloud if only selected grid points are used. Calculations using grid points at discrete intervals produce asmoothing effect over the entire cooling profile and increase errors. Two case

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particularly important because infrared coolingof the atmosphere is relatively less in moist, cloudy areas;thus, both the infrared and solar radiation have a positiveeffect on the generation of available potential energy inmid-latitude, synoptic-scale disturbances. In addition, thesolar absorption term is greater than previously thought.For further studies it is useful to know the functionwhich represents curve 3 (fig. 8). An approximation wasfound to beq,=0.096+0.045(~*)~ log, u*. (9)The variance of the

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coniing in.from the sky. We shall now investi-gate the way in which this radiation originates (10). It results from formula (1 ) or formula (4) that each line estends in principle to an infinite distance from its center. Absorption can, therefore, be caused by rather clistnnt lines, provided only these lines are strong enough. This is the case for the absorption between 8 p and 35p. The intense lines which cause this absorption are located in the very far infrared, namely beyond 30p. The intensi

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