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Jen Henderson, Lisa Dilling, Rebecca Morss, Olga Wilhelmi, and Ursula Rick

. 2010 ; Siddiki et al. 2017 ). Some studies emphasize the mechanisms of collaboration used to generate social learning, such as participatory environmental processes ( Ernst 2019 ); others highlight the various contexts and processes for which collective learning takes place, such as workshops around water management in food security ( Van Epp and Garside 2019 ) or sustainable development ( Kristjanson et al. 2014 ). For our purposes, we define social learning similarly to Reed et al. (2010) as

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S. Niggol Seo and Laura A. Bakkensen

cyclone impacts in this region ( Ali 1999 ; Karim and Mimura 2008 ; Dube et al. 2009 ; Hallegatte et al. 2011 ; Harman et al. 2015 ). This view holds that poor, densely populated regions located in low-lying areas are extremely vulnerable to oceanic surges caused by tropical cyclones. Although people can seek a temporary shelter from high-speed winds, it is more difficult to escape from the surging seas in densely populated lowlands in poor countries. We examine this hypothesis using the data on

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Carolina Neri and Víctor Magaña

indicators to make them meaningful to public policy makers ( Carreño et al. 2007 ; OECD 2008 ; USAID 2014 ). Indicators may describe aspects of the population (e.g., population density), economy (e.g., poverty levels), or physical conditions (e.g., land use changes). It is advisable that indicators, constructed from data, express a condition of the object of study for a period to observe how they change in time. Once the indicators are identified, they are normalized so they can be compared with each

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Ann Bostrom, Rebecca E. Morss, Jeffrey K. Lazo, Julie L. Demuth, Heather Lazrus, and Rebecca Hudson

, communicating, and using warning information, such as the National Weather Service (NWS), mass media organizations, and local emergency management agencies, is warranted. Although it seems reasonable to hypothesize that weather forecasters, public officials (PO), and the broadcast media (BR) have different perceptions and needs with respect to extreme weather information, this has been little studied [see Anthony et al. (2014) and Demuth et al. (2012) for exceptions]. The sheer volume of forecasts and

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Bogdan Antonescu, David M. Schultz, Hugo M. A. M. Ricketts, and Dragoş Ene

through the courtesy of the New York Metropolitan Museum from the Elisha Whittelsey Collection, The Elisha Whittelsey Fund, 1966; used under CC0 1.0 Universal license.) The ancient Greeks did not just attribute the meteorological phenomena to gods (i.e., nonnatural explanations), but they were also probably the first to make regular meteorological observations and to propose theories (i.e., natural explanations) about the formation of weather phenomena ( Hellmann 1908 ). Meteorological phenomena were

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G. B. Raga, M. G. de la Parra, and Beata Kucienska

thousands of kilometers. WWLLN originated in New Zealand and Australia almost 15 years ago and it is mostly based at research centers and universities worldwide ( Dowden et al. 2008 ). As of October 2012, WWLLN included 68 sites distributed globally ( Virts et al. 2013 ). WWLLN detects the middle part of the VLF band, exclusively uses propagation in the channel between the surface and the ionosphere to limit lightning location errors, and applies a time of group arrival algorithm ( Dowden et al. 2002

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David M. Schultz and Vladimir Janković

-impact weather is that weather will occur regardless of the trajectory of climate change, and thus the value of preparation is not contingent upon any particular emission scenario. On the other hand, the beneficial effects of carbon mitigation might be diminished by the increasing environmental vulnerability due to poor infrastructures, inadequate land use, air pollution, lack of risk assessment and preparedness, poor sanitation, and urban planning. Rapid industrialization and urban sprawl usually overshadow

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Seth P. Tuler, Thomas Webler, and Jason L. Rhoades

that discourage some private landowners from setting up easements are fears that they may reduce property values, reduce use of the area, and increase costs to the property owner because of surveying requirements. There is also a concern that establishing easements on public land may restrict the use of those lands. Participants in the VCAPS process suggested that the town facilitate easements by reducing the costs to property owners, updating town ordinances, and providing for public easements

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Sally Potter, Sara Harrison, and Peter Kreft

services (NMHSs) to use impact-based warnings to bridge the gap between forecasts and possible impacts of impending hazards ( WMO 2015 ). This supports the shift toward multihazard early warning systems becoming “people centered” [ Basher 2006 ; United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction ( UNISDR) 2015 ], empowering “individuals and communities threatened by hazards to act in sufficient time and in an appropriate manner to reduce the possibility of personal injury and illness, loss of

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Stephen B. Broomell, Gabrielle Wong-Parodi, Rebecca E. Morss, and Julie L. Demuth

with tornado season, time of day, and storm system types, along with demographic and individual difference variables (see section 3 ). In the following, we first review key literature relevant to our study. Second, we describe the survey method and analytic techniques used. We then present the results from the study, organized around the research questions above, and discuss their implications. Overall, we found that members of the SE U.S. public perceive important aspects of SE tornado likelihood

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