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Julie E. Doll, Brian Petersen, and Claire Bode

to obtain new or unexplored themes from survey data ( Buckingham and Saunders 2007 ). Focus groups can help identify new themes and provide understanding and insight ( Krueger and Casey 2009 ). When used with Midwestern farmers to discuss management decisions in the context of climate change, researchers were able to identify important themes and found that the qualitative data was both “valuable and enlightening” ( Prokopy et al. 2017 ). To more deeply understand farmers’ perceptions of climate

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Randy A. Peppler

also said there are probably other indicators and would try to “get more information from my friends.” His response was used by Kerr as the basis for his 1951 letter-writing campaign, which also included a query about the existence of “weather prophets.” This paper examines the responses and explores the possible motivations of Senator Kerr—an influential oil man born in a log cabin in the Oklahoma Indian Territory in 1896—in seeking such information at a time when the U.S. Weather Bureau had

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Alexis Berg, Philippe Quirion, and Benjamin Sultan

1. Introduction In the Sudano–Sahelian part of Western Africa, rain-fed crop production remains the principal source of households’ food and income: 70% of the income according to Abdulai and CroleRees (2001) in southern Mali, 67% according to Wouterse and Taylor (2007) in central Burkina Faso. This production is highly dependent on climate, as means to control the crop environment are largely unavailable to farmers. Irrigation is rarely an option [4% of cultivated land in sub

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Jen Henderson, Lisa Dilling, Rebecca Morss, Olga Wilhelmi, and Ursula Rick

. 2010 ; Siddiki et al. 2017 ). Some studies emphasize the mechanisms of collaboration used to generate social learning, such as participatory environmental processes ( Ernst 2019 ); others highlight the various contexts and processes for which collective learning takes place, such as workshops around water management in food security ( Van Epp and Garside 2019 ) or sustainable development ( Kristjanson et al. 2014 ). For our purposes, we define social learning similarly to Reed et al. (2010) as

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S. Niggol Seo and Laura A. Bakkensen

cyclone impacts in this region ( Ali 1999 ; Karim and Mimura 2008 ; Dube et al. 2009 ; Hallegatte et al. 2011 ; Harman et al. 2015 ). This view holds that poor, densely populated regions located in low-lying areas are extremely vulnerable to oceanic surges caused by tropical cyclones. Although people can seek a temporary shelter from high-speed winds, it is more difficult to escape from the surging seas in densely populated lowlands in poor countries. We examine this hypothesis using the data on

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Bogdan Antonescu, David M. Schultz, Hugo M. A. M. Ricketts, and Dragoş Ene

through the courtesy of the New York Metropolitan Museum from the Elisha Whittelsey Collection, The Elisha Whittelsey Fund, 1966; used under CC0 1.0 Universal license.) The ancient Greeks did not just attribute the meteorological phenomena to gods (i.e., nonnatural explanations), but they were also probably the first to make regular meteorological observations and to propose theories (i.e., natural explanations) about the formation of weather phenomena ( Hellmann 1908 ). Meteorological phenomena were

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G. B. Raga, M. G. de la Parra, and Beata Kucienska

thousands of kilometers. WWLLN originated in New Zealand and Australia almost 15 years ago and it is mostly based at research centers and universities worldwide ( Dowden et al. 2008 ). As of October 2012, WWLLN included 68 sites distributed globally ( Virts et al. 2013 ). WWLLN detects the middle part of the VLF band, exclusively uses propagation in the channel between the surface and the ionosphere to limit lightning location errors, and applies a time of group arrival algorithm ( Dowden et al. 2002

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David M. Schultz and Vladimir Janković

-impact weather is that weather will occur regardless of the trajectory of climate change, and thus the value of preparation is not contingent upon any particular emission scenario. On the other hand, the beneficial effects of carbon mitigation might be diminished by the increasing environmental vulnerability due to poor infrastructures, inadequate land use, air pollution, lack of risk assessment and preparedness, poor sanitation, and urban planning. Rapid industrialization and urban sprawl usually overshadow

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Carolina Neri and Víctor Magaña

indicators to make them meaningful to public policy makers ( Carreño et al. 2007 ; OECD 2008 ; USAID 2014 ). Indicators may describe aspects of the population (e.g., population density), economy (e.g., poverty levels), or physical conditions (e.g., land use changes). It is advisable that indicators, constructed from data, express a condition of the object of study for a period to observe how they change in time. Once the indicators are identified, they are normalized so they can be compared with each

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Ann Bostrom, Rebecca E. Morss, Jeffrey K. Lazo, Julie L. Demuth, Heather Lazrus, and Rebecca Hudson

, communicating, and using warning information, such as the National Weather Service (NWS), mass media organizations, and local emergency management agencies, is warranted. Although it seems reasonable to hypothesize that weather forecasters, public officials (PO), and the broadcast media (BR) have different perceptions and needs with respect to extreme weather information, this has been little studied [see Anthony et al. (2014) and Demuth et al. (2012) for exceptions]. The sheer volume of forecasts and

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