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June K. Yeung, James A. Smith, Mary Lynn Baeck, and Gabriele Villarini

urban flash floods in Baltimore, Maryland; that the regional occurrence of flash flooding was linked to the intensity of the thunderstorm systems [represented as a regional cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flash density]; and that organized thunderstorms producing flash floods in Baltimore exhibited characteristic life cycles involving storm initiation over the eastern margin of the central Appalachians and interaction of storm systems with sea breeze and bay breeze circulations. In a recent study

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Alexis Berg, Kirsten Findell, Benjamin R. Lintner, Pierre Gentine, and Christopher Kerr

soil temperature. In terms of land–atmosphere studies, a similar version of this model was used in phases I and II of the Global Land–Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (GLACE) experiment ( Koster et al. 2004 ; Guo et al. 2006 ; Koster et al. 2011 ). The simulation analyzed in this study covers the same time period (1979–2003) as the analysis of Findell et al. (2011) , with prescribed time-varying sea surface temperatures from the Hadley Centre Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature dataset (HadISST

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Peter Speirs, Marco Gabella, and Alexis Berne

used the data to evaluate ground-based radar range degradation in the Mediterranean area]. While not evaluations of the TRMM PR in mountainous regions per se, such studies do demonstrate the scientific utility of the stand-alone PR (and hence DPR) products, and therefore the need for an understanding of the limitations of their performance in mountainous regions. There are some studies comparing the TRMM rain product against that of ground-based radar networks over larger areas, albeit not

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Hisham Eldardiry and Faisal Hossain

northern strip of the Mediterranean Sea and Sinai region, and groundwater ( Allam and Allam 2007 ). The Nile River flow is almost fully controlled by the HAD once it enters Egypt. The HAD controls flow entering Lake Nasser to supply water required for irrigation and hydropower generation and to protect Egypt against floods in the Nile Delta ( Abu-Zeid and El-Shibini 1997 ). While GERD completion is expected to improve the energy and food security for Ethiopia, its impact on HAD operation and water

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Ruth Cerezo-Mota, Tereza Cavazos, and Luis M. Farfán

al. 2004 ). The following results are based on the Kain–Fritsch-2 CPS and the Schultz EMS parameterizations, and the precipitation errors are presented only for the finest domain (D3), since little difference was observed between the errors in D2 and D3. 4. Results a. Mean synoptic conditions Weak sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies characterized the moderate El Niño 1992/93 episode ( Bell and Basist 1994 ). As illustrated in Fig. 3a , in January 1993 positive SST anomalies (0.5°C) were

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Xinxuan Zhang, Emmanouil N. Anagnostou, and Humberto Vergara

), the western Black Sea region of Turkey ( Derin and Yilmaz 2014 ), the Ethiopia highlands ( Hirpa et al. 2010 ; Romilly and Gebremichael 2011 ), and the Tibetan Plateau ( Gao and Liu 2013 ). These studies have mainly focused on three quasi-global satellite products: the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Prediction Center morphing technique (CMORPH), the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), and the Precipitation

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M. Verbunt, A. Walser, J. Gurtz, A. Montani, and C. Schär

15 November 2002. Ahead of a deep upper-level through, which stretched from Algeria to the North Sea, a strong southwesterly flow was established over the Alps ( Fig. 2b ). Pronounced damage associated with several major mudslides occurred in the Rhine/Domat-Ems basin in southeastern Switzerland (catchment 1 in Fig. 1 ). This catchment is located in an inner-Alpine valley and is protected to the south and partly to the north by mountain chains. Thus, the precipitation leading to the event was

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Wenjing Zhao, Ning Zhang, Jianning Sun, and Jun Zou

/urban modeling system: Development, evaluation, and applications to urban environmental problems . Int. J. Climatol. , 31 , 273 – 288 , doi:10.1002/joc.2158 . Chen, F. , Miao S. , Tewari M. , Bao J. W. , and Kusaka H. , 2011b : A numerical study of interactions between surface forcing and sea-breeze circulations and their effects on stagnant winds in the greater Houston area . J. Geophys. Res. , 116 , D12105, doi:10.1029/2010JD015533 . Foken, T. , Gockede M. , Mauder M. , Mahrt L

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Vincent Vionnet, Ingrid Dombrowski-Etchevers, Matthieu Lafaysse, Louis Quéno, Yann Seity, and Eric Bazile

areas of mountains (Fig. 10 in their study). These values are larger than those found when evaluating AROME forecasts in a period of winter 2013 over a domain covering the western Mediterranean basin (bias, −0.25 K; STDE, 1.7 K; Fourrié et al. 2015 ). However, this study did not discuss the influence of elevation on temperature scores. Finally, similar to our results above 1500 m, Rontu et al. (2016) found a large cold bias at mountain stations when evaluating a configuration of AROME deployed

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Ning Wang, Xin-Min Zeng, Yiqun Zheng, Jian Zhu, and Shanhu Jiang

),(d) July. The moisture sources (sinks) are denoted as the percentage of attributed precipitation (evaporation) to total precipitation (evaporation) by each grid cell. For the moisture sources of precipitation over China in January ( Fig. 3a ), the main sources are southwest and south China and the adjacent continental and oceanic areas, which are a zonal region from the Arabian Sea (ARS) to the South China Sea (SCS), north of 10°N, and other sources, such as the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea, and

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