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Kalpesh Patil, M. C. Deo, and M. Ravichandran

corresponding observations during the testing period and show how r , RMSE, and MAE changed over the five time steps in the future at the location WEIO. The r values were very high over all steps and near their ideal value of 1.0. The RMSE and MAE were less than approximately 0.20°C for 5 days. Fig . 10. Performance of WNN in daily SSTA predictions. Variation over five time steps in (a) r , (b) RMSE, and (c) MAE (site: WEIO; wavelet: dmey). The output of the numerical SST models was not available in

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Joseph W. Lopez and Lakshmi H. Kantha

models are significantly greater than for purely dynamic layered models, which have been hitherto commonly used to investigate processes in the Indian Ocean (e.g., Jensen 1991 , 1993 ; McCreary et al. 1993 , 1996 ; Potemra et al. 1991 ) and the global circulation. This limits their horizontal resolution, especially when the models are implemented on a high-performance workstation. Fortunately, continuing progress in the development of more powerful computer systems at greatly reduced costs will

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S. P. Muszala, D. A. Connors, J. J. Hack, and G. Alaghband

. , 1996 : Parallel community climate model: Description and users guide. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Tech. Rep. ORNL/TM-12285, 31 pp . 10.2172/279706 Drake, J. , Hammond S. , James R. , and Worley P. , 1999 : Performance tuning and evaluation of a parallel community climate model. Proc. Conf. on High Performance Networking and Computing, Portland, OR, ACM–IEEE, CD-ROM, Article 34 . 10.1145/331532.331566 Ferrari, D. , and Zhou S. , 1995 : An empirical investigation of load indices

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Wenjun Tang, Kun Yang, Jun Qin, Jun Li, and Jiangang Ye

surface downward shortwave radiation over China from AVHRR data based on four machine learning methods . Sol. Energy , 177 , 32 – 46 , https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2018.11.008 . 10.1016/j.solener.2018.11.008 Xie , Y. , M. Sengupta , and J. Dudhia , 2016 : A Fast All-Sky Radiation Model for Solar Applications (FARMS): Algorithm and performance evaluation . Sol. Energy , 135 , 435 – 445 , https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2016.06.003 . 10.1016/j.solener.2016.06.003 Zhang , X. , S

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Keith D. Hutchison, Steve Marusa, John R. Henderson, Robert C. Kenley, Phillip C. Topping, William G. Uplinger, and John A. Twomey

than buoy data that have been used to date. End-to-end simulations serve two important areas of scientific investigation. They support 1) phenomenological studies in which the value of new algorithm methodologies or additional spectral data can be quantitatively evaluated and 2) system concept studies that seek to maximize hardware performance for a particular retrieval algorithm or methodology. To be useful, end-to-end simulations must accurately model real-world phenomenology and employ retrieval

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W. C. Thacker

are those for the observation. Dividing by the distance to the most remote point d max allows the weights to scale so that more distance points have greater influence in sparsely sampled regions. The data were partitioned into two groups—one for fitting the local regression models and the other for verifying their performance. While the models were to be fitted to data from overlapping regions, each was intended to be used to characterize the salinity within its own grid cell, so the

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Brian I. Magi

al. 2001 ; Price and Rind 1992 ; Tost et al. 2007 ). These and other parameterizations (e.g., Barthe et al. 2010 ) have been used as a basis for improving weather forecasting model simulations of regional precipitation ( Papadopoulos et al. 2005 ; Pessi and Businger 2009 ; Tapia et al. 1998 ) and have been implemented in global chemistry models to study lightning-produced nitrogen oxides ( Grewe et al. 2001 ; Levy et al. 1996 ; Shindell et al. 2006 ; Wu et al. 2008 ). This study evaluates

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Hao Huang, Kun Zhao, Guifu Zhang, Qing Lin, Long Wen, Gang Chen, Zhengwei Yang, Mingjun Wang, and Dongming Hu

constraints are imposed in the algorithms to reduce the impact of Φ DP errors and eventually lead to better QPE performance. An alternative way for QPE with Φ DP is to use a forward approach ( Rodgers 2000 ). In this method, R is regarded as a state variable, and a forward model is built to predict Φ DP values from R . Generally, optimum R estimates can be obtained when the difference between the predicted and the measured Φ DP is minimized. This method directly connects R with Φ DP

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Roar Skålin

1. Introduction In Skålin (1997) we developed a performance model and analyzed the scalability properties of parallel domain decompositions for explicit gridpoint limited-area models. Results from the performance model were shown to be consistent with numerical experiments carried out with PARLAM, the parallel implementation of HIRLAM (High Resolution Limited Area Model) at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute (DNMI) ( Bjørge and Skålin 1995 ; Skålin et al. 1994 ). The HIRLAM system

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Wendy A. Ryan, Nolan J. Doesken, and Steven R. Fassnacht

this problem. An ongoing study of snowfall trends in the United States has documented decades of observational inconsistency, even when only manual observations at long-term stations are considered ( Kunkel et al. 2007 ). This study aims to evaluate the use of ultrasonic snow depth sensors to restore snowfall and snow depth measurements at ASOS and other automated stations and to potentially achieve a higher degree of data continuity. a. Traditional snow measurements The traditional NWS snow

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