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Michael J. Pavolonis

cyclones ( Olander and Velden 2007 ). The retrieval of other cloud properties, such as optical depth and effective particle size from near-infrared and visible measurements (e.g., Nakajima and King 1990 ), generally relies on cloud-phase information to constrain the retrieval. Also, as satellite data records continue to grow in size, the importance of data mining increases. Cloud composition information can be used in data-mining applications. For instance, one may want to use data mining to limit a

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Lothar Schüller, Ralf Bennartz, Jürgen Fischer, and Jean-Louis Brenguier

Introduction Monitoring changes of cloud microphysical and radiative properties due to anthropogenic pollution is crucial for validating climate model predictions of the indirect aerosol effect (e.g., Twomey 1977 ). Retrieval techniques of cloud optical properties from satellite-measured radiances have been under developed since the late 1980s (Twomey and Cocks 1989; Nakajima and King 1990 ) and are used to operationally retrieve optical thickness and effective droplet radius from orbiting

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Michael J. Curry and Robert S. Schemenauer

816 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY VoL~r~E18The Small-Particle Response of an Optical Array Precipitation ProbeMICNA~:L J. CUR~-~ ANn ROBERT S. SCm~M:ENAIr~RAtmospheric Environmmi Soeice, Doum.~ew, Ontario, CanaJa M3H 5T4(Manuscript received 6 June 1978, in final form 22 December 1978) The response characteristics of an optical array precipitation spectrometer probe (PMS-OAP-20010have been studied in the

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C. Prabhakara, Jung-Moon Yoo, Giuseppe Dalu, and R. S. Fraser

larger particles (~ 12 t~m) in the bottom of the cloud and smaller ones (~<1 urn) aloft. Radiativetransfer calculations also suggest that the equivalent ice-water content of these polar clouds is of the order of 1mg cm-L1. Introduction Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) (Hanelet al. 1972) flown on Nimbus 4 satellite revealed spectral properties of the optically thin cirrus clouds in theupper troposphere. In the tropics the 10-13 #m infrared(IR) window region of the IRIS spectrum shows

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Thomas Carlund, Tomas Landelius, and Weine Josefsson

depth of biomass burning, urban and desert dust aerosols. J. Geophys. Res. 104 : 31333 – 31349 . Fröhlich , C. and G. E. Shaw . 1980 . New determination of Rayleigh scattering in the terrestrial atmosphere. Appl. Opt. 19 : 1773 – 1775 . Gonzi , S. , D. Baumgartner , and E. Putz . 2002 . Aerosol climatology and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in Europe. Institute for Geophysics, Astrophysics, and Meteorology, University of Graz Tech. Rep. for EU 1/2002, 52

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F. G. Meyer, J. A. Curry, C. A. Brock, and L. F. Radke

-crystal concentrations in the upper 1 km of this layer 'were the largestmeasured during any of these four research flights. Unfortunately no measurements above 3.1 km were made,3. Single-scattering properties Before proceeding with modeling the visual range,the single-scattering optical properties of the aerosolsand ice crystals present in the Arctic atmosphere mustbe determined. Those properties specifically requiredfor this study are the volume extinction coefficient, thevolume-scattering coefficient, the

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Steven J. Cooper and Timothy J. Garrett

. Significant effort has been directed at both understanding the underlying physics of the ice cloud problem and using this knowledge to infer cirrus cloud properties from satellite-based measurements (see Miller et al. 2000 , Inoue 1985 ; Prabhakara et al. 1988 ; Nakajima and King 1990 ; King et al. 1992 ). Each of these retrieval techniques was designed based upon observed spectral radiance sensitivities to cloud properties such as optical depth and effective radius. However, each also has its own

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Kara K. Voss and Amato T. Evan

specific regions ( Malm et al. 1994 ; Prospero and Nees 1986 ; Prospero 1999 ; Holben et al. 1998 ). Most satellite sensors do not isolate the dust contribution to aerosol optical depth (AOD) at the point of retrieval, so several methods have been proposed and utilized for studying spatial and temporal variations of dust using satellite measurements and models. These methods have mostly used optical properties of the aerosol column related to particle size ( Ginoux et al. 2012 ; Kaufman 2005

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Rene Preusker and Rasmus Lindstrot

precision. Summarizing, the retrieval of CTP is possible with high accuracy in the case of optically thick, single-layered clouds. These conditions are usually met by low clouds, whereas the probability of multilayer cloud structures increases with cloud height. Regardless of the atmospheric condition and the individual cloud properties, the spectral characterization of the instrument is of great importance, as a change of central wavelength or spectral channel width significantly alters the gaseous

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J. D. Spinhirne, J. A. Reagan, and B. M. Herman

. Sci. Instrurn., 437-439. - , 1977: Monitoring of tropospheric aerosol optical properties by laser radar. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Arizona, 176 pp.Toon, O. B., and J. B. Pollack, 1976: A global average model of atmospheric aerosols for radiative transfer calculations. J. Appl. Meteor., 15, 225-246.Waggoner, A. P., N. C. Ahlquist and R. J. Charlson, 1972: Meas urement of the aerosol total scatter-backscatter ratio. Appl. Opt., 11~ 2886-2889.Yamamoto, G., and M. Tanaka, 1972

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