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H. Riehl
T. C. Yeh
, and
N. E. La seur

of the 300-mb surface, 0400 GCT 31 October 1945. Heavy lines same as in fig. 18.from summer to winter, if any, is small, and Aumomentum does not vary with height in the mean. Inindividual cases, it sometimes increases, sometimesdecreases, upward. The intensity of Au-momentumgenerally is about double that of A I er I -momentum,even though Iv( exceeds u near the subtropical ridge.Preliminary comparison between the hemispherictrends and individual maps shows good agreementwith the expected long

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Iordanka N. Panayotova
Kyle L. Swanson

and One solution to this system is the classic Eady edge wave solution: where the frequency ω is given by This leaves the total leading order solution: 4. Next-order corrections Substituting Φ 0 from (31) into Eqs. (23) for F 1 and G 1 leads to correspondent equivalent representations: Taking into account the properties of Φ e and after some algebra and numerous applications of the identity we find the solutions for the curl potentials: Here F̃ and G̃ are homogeneous solutions to

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Charles E. Schemm
Frank B. Lipps

simplified and can be solved algebraically. A scale analysis of the full transport equations is offered as partialjustification for the present approach in the case of nearly isotropic turbulence. The problem studied is that of a well-mixed layer bounded above by a region of strong stable stratification. The present model gives a significant improvement in the representation of the large-scale variables as compared with the more conventional eddy viscosity approach. In three experiments

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Akira Kasahara

results ofthe geostrophic (G) and nongeostrophic (NG) forecasts of hurricane movement are presented here, notonly to facilitate comparison between the behaviorof the two models but also to investigate the forecasterrors with a view to further improvement of theprediction models.374JOURNAL OF METEOROLOGYVOLUME 16.Let us first consider the sources of forecast errors.In general, errors inherent in the forecast may beclassified into the following three types :1. map analysis errors, especially those due

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Ming Bao
John M. Wallace

derived from the five subsets to obtain a single set of clusters. The values of RP are based on spatial correlations between corresponding clusters in the five subsets of the input. As explained in the previous section, each value represents the average of 10 different comparisons. The resulting clusters are shown in Fig. 1 . The first three patterns correspond closely to the regimes G′, A′, and R′ in CW (their Fig. 7). Fig . 1. Composite 500-hPa height anomaly maps of the cluster derived from Ward

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Richard J. Reed
Bruce A. Kunkel

forfurther statistical and synoptic studies to correctcurrent statistics based on erroneous maps, to clarifyremaining differences of viewpoint and to provide afuller description of various circulation features. -1first matter which requires clarification is the distribution of mean surface pressure over the Arctic Sea insummer. An early map of Baur's [11] depicted a regionof flat pressure in July with an average value near1011 mb. A later mean published by the U. S. WeatherBureau [la], based on the 40

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R. A. Panofsky

386JOURNAL OF METEOROLOGYVOLUME 6OBJECTIVE WEATHER-MAP ANALYSISBy R. A. PanofskyNew York University'(Manuscript received 7 February 1949)ABSTRACTWind and pressure fields are fitted by third-degree polynomials in areas of the order of 106 square miles.Expressions involving derivatives of wind and pressure are computed and the question of computation ofgeostrophic deviations is re-examined. A method of connecting polynomials in separate areas is investigated.The following conclusions are drawn :1

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R. T. Pierrehumbert
H. Yang

modest degree of smoothing, the tracer field evolving from a localizedrelease rapidly attains the form of an algebraically spreading cloud. The zonal size ofthe cloud increases linearlywith time (superdilfusively), owing to the systematic shear in the extratropical zonal jets, while the meridionalspread has the square-root-of-time increase characteristic of classical diffusion. It is argued, however, that thesmall-scale tracer structure missing from current general circulation models and from

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Richard C. J. Somerville

)and (31) we obtain a coupled system of (2M+I)N prognostic ordinary differential equations of the form d --(Xi) = fi. dtHere the Xi are the (2M-I-1)N Fourier amplitudes, andthe f~ are algebraic functions of the wave numbers,the four dimensionless parameters (A,a,R,b), and theX~ themselves. Once values of the parameters and initialconditions for the X~ are specified, this system may besolved numerically as a marching problem. All of thenumerical solutions described

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F. H. Schmidt

excluded.(5) If the observer faces in the direction of theupper-level flow, it was observed that the cyclonesmoved, on the average, to the right of the upper-levelcontours or isotherms. The algebraic means for the 92cases in comparison B were +17" for the contours inthe layer from 850 mb to 700 mb, +5" for the isotherms in the layer from 850 mb to 700 mb, + 11 " forthe contours in the layer from 700 mb to 500 mb, +12"for the isotherms in the layer from 700 mb to 500 mb,and +6" for contours of the 200

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