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Wilawan Kumharn, John S. Rimmer, Andrew R. D. Smedley, Toh Ying Ying, and Ann R. Webb

1. Introduction Aerosol effects are one of the major uncertainties in assessing global climate change, ecosystem processes, and human health prediction ( Andreae et al. 2005 ; Pilewskie 2007 ; Satheesh and Ramanathan 2000 ; Sokolik and Toon 1996 ) because there are no effective loading controls. This is because they critically change the balance between the radiation entering and leaving the atmosphere, as well as influencing cloud formation and having direct effects on biological systems

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Xuanze Zhang, Xiaogu Zheng, Zhian Sun, and San Luo

1. Introduction The amount of scientific evidence indicates that the global climate is influenced by natural forcing (such as volcanoes and solar irradiance) and anthropogenic forcing (such as increases in well-mixed greenhouse gases, depletion of stratospheric ozone, and changes in atmospheric burdens of various aerosol particles) (e.g., Tett et al. 2002 ; Hegerl GC et al. 2007 ; IPCC 2007 ; Karl et al. 2006 ; Forster et al. 2007 ; Wigley and Santer 2013 ; Santer et al. 2003a , 2005

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Kun-Peng Zang, Ling-Xi Zhou, and Ju-Ying Wang

coincidence of industrialization and urbanization with rapid economic development throughout Asia has resulted in this area being one of the most important anthropogenic sources of CO 2 and CH 4 in the world ( Matsueda et al. 1996 ; Bartlett et al. 2003 ; Fang et al. 2013 ). Observations of CO 2 , CH 4 , and related atmospheric compounds at land- and island-based stations, such as the Tae-ahn Peninsula (36.73°N, 126.13°E) in South Korea and Yonagunijima Island (24.47°N,123.02°E) and Hateruma Island

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Yiwen Pan, Yifan Li, Wei Fan, Dahai Zhang, Yongfa Qiang, Zong-Pei Jiang, and Ying Chen

rate would be needed to enhance the oceanic primary productivity? Does artificial upwelling have the potential to succeed as a geoengineering technique to sequester anthropogenic CO 2 in the open sea? These are major scientific and technical issues facing us. Today, artificial upwelling has received increasing attention worldwide due to its potential positive environmental effects. Therefore, we believe that the answers can be found in the future through increased open-ocean trials

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Jost Heintzenberg and Gunter Erfurt

-free air ( Heintzenberg and Bäcklin 1983 )] and ease and stability of calibration ( Bhardwaja et al. 1973 ; Bodhaine 1979 ). Unfortunately, these positive design features have negative side effects that limit the atmospheric applications of this instrument. Among these, the effect on relative humidity (RH) often is the most severe. The size of atmospheric aerosol particles and thus their optical properties are strongly dependent on relative humidities of the carrier gas ( Junge 1950 ). The RH of the

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Giuseppe Zibordi, Davide D'Alimonte, and Jean-François Berthon

d (0 − , λ ), are commonly extrapolated from L u ( z, λ ), E u ( z, λ ), and E d ( z, λ ) values at different depths z. The basic assumption is that the log-transformed radiometric data linearly decrease with depth ( Smith and Baker 1984 ) in a given near-surface interval hereafter called the extrapolation interval. A recent theoretical work ( Zaneveld et al. 2001 ) showed that wave effects in the irradiance field, generated by the superimposition of waves with different heights and

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Giuseppe Zibordi, Jean-François Berthon, and Davide D’Alimonte

radiance and irradiance by simply extrapolating their values just below the water surface (i.e., at depth 0 − ), the above-water downward irradiance data are used to minimize the effects of illumination changes on in-water measurements during data collection. In-water profiles of radiometric quantities generally result from measurements performed with radiometers operated on moorings, or on winched and free-fall systems. In the first case, measurements are a function of the discrete depths selected for

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Scott J. Richardson, Natasha L. Miles, Kenneth J. Davis, Eric R. Crosson, Chris W. Rella, and Arlyn E. Andrews

1. Introduction The interest in deploying regional measurement networks to quantify carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) fluxes, both biogenic and anthropogenic, is growing as the need to regulate CO 2 emissions grows. Inverse studies of CO 2 mixing ratio have traditionally been conducted at coarse spatial and temporal resolution because of both computing restraints and a scarcity of measurements. Until fairly recently the majority of high-accuracy field CO 2 measurements have been made using sensors

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Graham Feingold and Christian J. Grund

information for climate monitoring.1. Introduction In a recent paper, Charlson ct al. (1992) pointed outthat the direct scattering of shortwave radiation by enhanced anthropogenic aerosol sources, together withthe indirect effects of these aerosols, through theirmodification of cloud reflectance, may produce a cooling effect similar in magnitude to the warming perturbations induced by anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Twomey ( 1974, 1977a) hypothesized that increasedconcentrations of atmospheric

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Peter Sigray, Peter Lundberg, and Kristofer Döös

system The communication link that we were given access to was of the fiber-optic variety and, hence, use was made of the copper sheathing employed to protect the fiber bundles from the deleterious effects of hydrogen diffusion ( Runge and Trischitta 1986 , chapter 17). Since the cable was comparatively short (viz., only around 100 km), no optical repeaters requiring a power supply through the sheathing were installed, and thus the conducting mantle could, with a minimum of practical complications

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