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Douglas C. Stolz, Steven A. Rutledge, Weixin Xu, and Jeffrey R. Pierce

1. Introduction The discovery of 40–50-day oscillations in the zonal winds at 850 and 150 hPa in the tropical atmosphere over 45 years ago has incited a rich interest in researching and characterizing the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 ) (important acronyms in this paper are also listed and defined in the appendix ). The MJO influences patterns of variability of lower- and upper-tropospheric winds, humidity, and temperature on 30–90-day time scales, and

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Weixin Xu, Steven A. Rutledge, Courtney Schumacher, and Masaki Katsumata

distributed in phases 4 and 5 ( XR14 ). 3. Large-scale satellite overview DYNAMO IOPs observed three intraseasonal and eastward-propagating large-scale convective events (namely MJOs). The first two MJO events in October (MJO 1) and November (MJO 2) were prominent and coherent with wind signals circumnavigating the globe, whereas the December MJO (MJO 3) was less coherent with an incomplete global cycle. The large-scale conditions of the atmosphere and upper ocean during these MJO events were examined in

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