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Wen-wen Tung, Dimitrios Giannakis, and Andrew J. Majda

. , and F. Liu , 2011 : A model for scale interaction in the Madden–Julian oscillation . J. Atmos. Sci. , 68 , 2524 – 2536 , doi: 10.1175/2011JAS3660.1 . Webster , P. , and R. Lukas , 1992 : TOGA COARE: The Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 73 , 1377 – 1416 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0477(1992)073<1377:TCTCOR>2.0.CO;2 . Wheeler , M. , and G. N. Kiladis , 1999 : Convectively coupled equatorial waves: Analysis of clouds and temperature in the

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Jianhao Zhang, Paquita Zuidema, David D. Turner, and Maria P. Cadeddu

postulated (e.g., Ciesielski et al. 2017 ). This feedback focuses more on the interaction of the large-scale circulation with convective variability at smaller scales, such as through shallow-to-deep convective transitions (e.g., Xu and Rutledge 2016 ) and through the diurnal cycle ( Ruppert and Johnson 2015 ). Accurate estimates of the moisture field and its variability at a range of time scales are essential for studying convection and its two-way interaction with humidity. The continuing number of

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Weixin Xu and Steven A. Rutledge

convection is believed to be the primary limiting factor in MJO simulation and prediction ( Randall et al. 2003 ; Lin et al. 2006 ; Zhang et al. 2006 ; Benedict and Randall 2009 ). To improve parameterizations of clouds and physical precipitation processes in numerical models, it is important to quantify the evolution of convective cloud populations and convective/microphysical characteristics, understand the interaction between convection and the local environment (e.g., moisture and heating), and

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Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Eric Maloney, and Susan C. van den Heever

with the microphysics and surface schemes. The Land Ecosystem–Atmosphere Feedback model, version 3 (LEAF-3), submodel within RAMS is used to represent surface–atmosphere heat and moisture exchange ( Walko et al. 2000 ). The RAMS simulations were approximately centered over the DYNAMO northern sounding array (NSA; Fig. 1 ). Simulations were run at two resolutions. A 1.5-km horizontal simulation was conducted with interactive LHFLXs to evaluate the convective-scale relationship of MJO precipitation

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Naoko Sakaeda, Scott W. Powell, Juliana Dias, and George N. Kiladis

suppressed envelopes. Therefore, further examination of how rain and cloud types vary diurnally and with the MJO is critical for a better understanding the diurnal cycle and its interactions with large-scale variability. Over open tropical oceans, the diurnal cycle of rainfall tends to have peak total rainfall in the early morning hours, in contrast to the late afternoon peaks over land ( Yang and Slingo 2001 ; Nesbitt and Zipser 2003 ; Kikuchi and Wang 2008 ). This early morning peak in rainfall over

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Nick Guy and David P. Jorgensen

characteristics during the initiation of the MJO. A large body of literature exists describing MJO characteristics, especially large-scale dynamics ( Lau and Waliser 2005 ; Zhang 2005 ). Briefly, a composite view of MJO phases indicates that inactive (i.e., suppressed or dry) phases are characterized by easterly winds and synoptic subsidence; and as an MJO event develops, moistening of the lower atmosphere in conjunction with surface westerlies occurs. The troposphere remains anomalously moist throughout

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Simon P. de Szoeke, Eric D. Skyllingstad, Paquita Zuidema, and Arunchandra S. Chandra

2013 ; Moum et al. 2014 ; de Szoeke et al. 2015 ) documented the evolution of the structure and energy budgets of the atmosphere and upper ocean, of the interactions between the atmosphere and ocean, and of the convective population during the passage of two intraseasonal Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) convective events. This study focuses on the statistics of convective cold pools and their effect on atmosphere–ocean interactions, as observed from the Revelle . Their effect will also be

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H. Bellenger, R. Wilson, J. L. Davison, J. P. Duvel, W. Xu, F. Lott, and M. Katsumata

1. Introduction To correctly represent Earth’s climate, it is imperative to understand and quantify the processes that play a role in water vapor variability. The nonlinear relationship between free-tropospheric moisture and outgoing longwave radiation at the top of the atmosphere (e.g., Spencer and Braswell 1997 ) is a well-known example of the importance of these processes for global climate. In addition, the characteristics of tropical moist convection strongly depend on the tropospheric

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Paul E. Ciesielski, Richard H. Johnson, Wayne H. Schubert, and James H. Ruppert Jr.

1. Introduction The diurnal cycle is a fundamental mode of the circulation and precipitation variability in the tropics. While its characteristics and governing mechanisms over land and coastal regions have been extensively studied and are well understood, the same cannot be said for over the open ocean, where the paucity of observations has limited our ability to fully describe and understand it. Making creative use of surface observations (e.g., COADS, buoy, and scatterometer winds), several

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Douglas C. Stolz, Steven A. Rutledge, Weixin Xu, and Jeffrey R. Pierce

1. Introduction The discovery of 40–50-day oscillations in the zonal winds at 850 and 150 hPa in the tropical atmosphere over 45 years ago has incited a rich interest in researching and characterizing the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 ) (important acronyms in this paper are also listed and defined in the appendix ). The MJO influences patterns of variability of lower- and upper-tropospheric winds, humidity, and temperature on 30–90-day time scales, and

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