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Mark Decker, Michael A. Brunke, Zhuo Wang, Koichi Sakaguchi, Xubin Zeng, and Michael G. Bosilovich

1. Introduction Reanalysis products are typically used for many varying applications in the earth science community due to the lack of globally and temporally complete direct observations ( Qian et al. 2006 ). Examples of the uses of reanalysis products are to drive land surface models, study the climate system, and provide boundary conditions for regional modeling. Reanalysis products merge available observations with a state-of-the-art atmospheric (or more recently, coupled ocean

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Rolf H. Reichle, Randal D. Koster, Gabriëlle J. M. De Lannoy, Barton A. Forman, Qing Liu, Sarith P. P. Mahanama, and Ally Touré

computational unit of the model is the hydrological catchment (or watershed), with boundaries defined by topography (see below). Within each element, the vertical profile of soil moisture is given by the equilibrium soil moisture profile and the deviations from the equilibrium profile (described by variables in a 0–2-cm surface layer and in a “root zone” layer that extends from the surface to a depth z R , with 75 cm ≤ z R ≤ 100 cm depending on local soil conditions). The spatial variability of soil

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Franklin R. Robertson and Jason B. Roberts

. Though the net lateral boundary flux of is small in either phase, the individual and fluxes are large and strongly coupled to the circulation driven by the heating. This storage–release cycle of energy in which the ocean accumulates energy, turbulent fluxes recharge the atmosphere, and convective–radiative adjustment processes reject a portion of this energy to space is closely related to the D/R mechanism articulated by Blade and Hartmann (1993) . The latter is focused over the Indo

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