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Robert Rogers

processes occurring within the vortex during RI. Malkus and Riehl (1960) , Simpson et al. (1998) , and Braun (2002 , 2006) identified deep, undilute convective cores in the eyewall, which they termed hot towers, as accomplishing a significant portion of the vertical mass flux in the eyewall. These hot towers, termed convective bursts in the current parlance, are driven by local buoyancy, where “local” is meant to refer to their buoyancy relative to the immediate environment of the eyewall ( Smith

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Gerald M. Heymsfield, Lin Tian, Andrew J. Heymsfield, Lihua Li, and Stephen Guimond

of the coast and those out over the open ocean. Many of the ocean cases studied are near coastal regions. c. Analysis methodology As mentioned previously, intense convection in the current study is defined by either a 20-dB Z echo above 12-km altitude or by updrafts with magnitudes ≥10 m s −1 at any altitude. There have been many definitions of intense convection as described by Zipser et al. (2006) . For example, they defined a strong updraft as having a 40-dB Z echo above 10 km and >10 m s

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Edward K. Vizy and Kerry H. Cook

boundary layer scheme. Note that there is currently no parameterization that accounts for the influence of the variability of aerosol forcing in the model. 4. Validation of the WRF model Surface, 850-hPa, and 700-hPa vortex center intensity and track information from the simulated and ECMWF operational reanalysis pre-Ernesto AEW are shown in Figs. 3 and 4 , respectively. Overall, WRF simulates the intensity of the vortex center at these three levels reasonably well compared to the ECMWF reanalysis

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