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Y. C. Sud and G. K. Walker

examine the interannual and intraseasonal differences in the simulations so as to assess the influence of salinity within the framework of full natural variability of climate. Both simulation used the identical SST and sea-ice datasets. The boundary conditions datasets were the same as employed in the AMIP simulation ( Gates, 1992 ) and contain the analyzed interannual variability in SST that were produced by the National Meteorological Center [currently the National Centers for Environmental

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Mark R. Jury

; Lutjeharms and Meeuwis 1987 ). Other upwelling cells are located at Cape Columbine, at 33°S, and Hondeklip Bay, at 30°S ( Shannon 1985 ; Jury 1988 ), as reflected in the ocean climatology fields (cf. Figure 1 ). There are intermittent seasonal upwelling cells at the southern and northern boundaries of the Benguela system (Cape Peninsula, at 34°S, and Cape Frio, at 16°S), beyond which lie the warm Agulhas and Angola Currents characterized by higher temperature and salinity, lower chlorophyll ( Boyd et

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G. J. P. Salazar, R. N. J. Aguirre, and M. G. A. Peñuela

respiration related to internal currents that allow oxygen to reach the lower gate of the reservoir’s intake tower in the dry season. 10. Conclusions At the water–sediment boundary, vertical gradients of soluble Mn were observed for the mouth of the Rio Chico, the mouth of the Riogrande, and the mouth of the Las Animas River, with higher concentrations of metal in the sediment water. This demonstrates the release and diffusion of Mn from the solid phase in the sediments to the bottom hypolimnion to be a

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David M. Schultz, Timothy M. DelSole, Robert M. Rauber, and Walter A. Robinson

specialized topic that are readable for a more general audience than research articles. This Editorial describes the purpose, content, and the process of Reviews. The purpose of a Review is summarized in an Editorial in Monthly Weather Review ( Schultz 2008 , p. 5): Review might more properly be called literature synthesis. For students and scientists alike, many Reviews are as valuable as textbooks, albeit more current. … A common perception is that a Review is a quick publication, lacking new

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Mark R. Jury

1. Introduction and data analysis The low-lying Turks and Caicos Islands (TCI) are the most southeastern of the Bahamas island chain situated on shallow banks about 200 km north of mountainous Hispaniola. For most of the year, TCI experiences Atlantic trade winds ( Klingel 1961 ; Halkitis et al. 1980 ) moderated by the warm Antilles Current. Yet the climate is remarkably dry with a mean rainfall of ~1 m yr −1 ( Reed 1926 ) and evaporation of ~2 m yr −1 ( Little et al. 1977 ) that is

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Justin E. Bagley, Ankur R. Desai, Paul C. West, and Jonathan A. Foley

large persistent atmospheric and surface gradients, such as land–sea boundaries, the accuracy of the boundary layer component of the model in its current form is limited, because unaccounted advection of energy and moisture may become a dominant forcing on the atmospheric boundary layer. Additionally, for vegetation replacement scenarios, PegBL reproduces the gross impacts found by earlier work ( Table 5 ) but with significantly decreased computational time and input requirements. We found that the

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Pennan Chinnasamy and Jason A. Hubbart

boundary conditions for the entire watershed and not for only the floodplain. However, those data were not available for the current work. Figure 4. Observed vs modeled (MODFLOW) hydraulic heads for piezometers located at PZI (Pz1–Pz6) and at PZII (Pz7–Pz12) over WY 2011 at Baskett Wildlife Research and Education Center, central Missouri. 3.4. Groundwater flow simulations For WY 2011, the entire study reach was, on average, a losing stream with 1988 m 3 day −1 lost to GW. On an annual average, the

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Avijit Gangopadhyay, Ayan H. Chaudhuri, and Arnold H. Taylor

1. Introduction The Gulf Stream (GS) system, a major oceanic feature in the North Atlantic, spans a large spatial extent. It starts as the Florida Current along the southeastern shores of the United States, where it is composed of the wind-driven western boundary current (WBC) and of the Loop Current in the Gulf of Mexico turning around the tip of Florida. Between 25° and 35°N, over a distance of 1000 km, it gathers transport to grow from a 25-Sverdrup (Sv; 1 Sv = 10 6 m 3 s −1 ) current to a

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C. L. Tague and L. E. Band

(BIOME-BGC) ( Running and Hunt 1993 ). Hydrologic modeling studies using RHESSys have included analysis of model sensitivity to landscape representation ( Band 1993 ; Band et al. 1993 ) and using the model to explore the sensitivity of hydrologic response to climate change ( Baron et al. 1998 ). This current version of RHESSys continues to follow the basic BIOME-BGC framework. As discussed in this paper, however, many submodels used for specific processes have been altered and/or extended, largely

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Michael Peterson and Geoffrey Stano

et al. 2005 ). Further adding to the hazard, this type of lightning often produces positive CG (+CG) strokes with high peak currents and continuing current (CC) that lead to large charge moment changes. The physical attributes of these strokes are favorable for initiating forest fires ( Latham and Williams 2001 ) and generating exotic upper-atmosphere electrical discharges such as sprites ( Franz et al. 1990 ; Williams 1998 ; Lyons et al. 2009 ; Williams et al. 2010 ). Scenarios as described

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