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John P. Monteverdi, Warren Blier, Greg Stumpf, Wilfred Pi, and Karl Anderson

(QG) forcing, comprehensive Eta and Aviation (AVN) Model based QG analyses were constructed and examined (not shown). In all cases, and at both the model initialization time of 1200 UTC 4 May and the approximate time of the tornadic event (0000 UTC 5 May), this forcing was found to be quite weak throughout the region of interest. b. Buoyancy and shear A rare thermodynamic environment occurred in the San Francisco Bay Area on 4 May 1998. The Oakland (KOAK) 0000 UTC 5 May 1998 sounding (not shown

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Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Michael C. Pitts, Lamont R. Poole, and Marion Maturilli

1. Introduction The “picture of the month” as presented in this short contribution is not a photo of the sky spontaneously shot from a digital camera. The picture as displayed in Fig. 1 is a combination of spaceborne measurements by the Cloud–Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instrument on board the Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations ( CALIPSO ) satellite during one of several Arctic overpasses on 30 December 2015 and a high-resolution short

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Bradley M. Muller, Christopher G. Herbster, and Frederick R. Mosher

the coastline, the cloud-free eye is 6–7 km in diameter, but shrinks to 2–3 km as it turns from moving southwestward to moving toward the east. The shrinkage of the eye is similar to that of von Kármán vortices seen downwind of islands ( Young and Zawislak 2006 ), suggesting a nonsteady-state boundary layer flow characterized by pressure gradient force, centrifugal force, and friction. Satellite images at 1445, 1500, and 1530 UTC ( Fig. 3 ) show a sharp boundary between clear and cloudy air

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Brandon J. Vogt and Stephen J. Hodanish

work is that there is no comprehensive cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning climatology for the state of Colorado in the formal literature. The most formal comprehensive work that analyzes CG lightning in Colorado was published by Lopez and Holle (1986) . The authors examine a single year (1983) of CG lightning data collected over the state’s northeast region where they found the lightning activity to be mainly a warm season event, with a large majority of the flashes occurring June through September

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John P. Monteverdi, Roger Edwards, and Gregory J. Stumpf

1. Introduction At 2332 UTC (1632 PDT) 7 July 2004, a backpacker, Scott Newton, hiking near Rockwell Pass in Sequoia National Park (west of Mount Williamson in the southern Sierra Nevada) observed cloud-base rotation and an associated funnel cloud ( Fig. 1 ). The parent thunderstorm ( Fig. 2 ) had formed west of Rockwell Pass over the upper sections of the steeply walled Kern River Canyon ( Figs. 3 and 4 ). Mr. Newton was hiking southward toward the Wrights Lake basin and was nearing the pass

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Eric A. Hendricks, Brian D. McNoldy, and Wayne H. Schubert

best-track intensity is also given at a number of date–time groups. The National Hurricane Center (NHC) best-track intensity estimates are shown in Fig. 2 . These intensity estimates are based in part upon multiple aircraft reconnaissance missions that were conducted in Dolly from both the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) WP-3D and the U.S. Air Force (USAF) Reserve 53rd Weather Reconnaissance Squadron WC-130J aircraft. The vertically oriented solid black line indicates the

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David M. Schultz, Bogdan Antonescu, and Alessandro Chiariello

, doi: 10.1175/MWR-D-10-05003.1 . Keyser , D. , M. J. Reeder , and R. J. Reed , 1988 : A generalization of Petterssen’s frontogenesis function and its relation to the forcing of vertical motion . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 116 , 762 – 780 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(1988)116<0762:AGOPFF>2.0.CO;2 . Locatelli , J. D. , and P. V. Hobbs , 1987 : The mesoscale and microscale structure and organization of clouds and precipitation in midlatitude cyclones. XIII: Structure of a warm front . J. Atmos

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